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(Anatomy) Excretory System: Orange Juice and Kidneys

 
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adedios
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PostPosted: Thu Aug 31, 2006 6:29 am    Post subject: (Anatomy) Excretory System: Orange Juice and Kidneys Reply with quote






UT Southwestern Medical Center

Orange juice is better than lemonade at keeping kidney stones away

DALLAS Aug. 31, 2006 A daily glass of orange juice can help prevent the recurrence of kidney stones better than other citrus fruit juices such as lemonade, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have discovered.

The findings indicate that although many people assume that all citrus fruit juices help prevent the formation of kidney stones, not all have the same effect. The study is available online and is scheduled to be published in the Oct. 26 issue of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

Medically managing recurrent kidney stones requires dietary and lifestyle changes as well as treatment such as the addition of potassium citrate, which has been shown to lower the rate of new stone formation in patients with kidney stones.

But some patients can't tolerate potassium citrate because of gastrointestinal side effects, said Dr. Clarita Odvina, assistant professor of internal medicine at the Charles and Jane Pak Center for Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research and the study's lead author. In those cases, dietary sources of citrate such as orange juice may be considered as an alternative to pharmacological drugs.

"Orange juice could potentially play an important role in the management of kidney stone disease and may be considered an option for patients who are intolerant of potassium citrate," Dr. Odvina said.

All citrus juices contain citrate, a negatively charged form of citric acid that gives a sour taste to citrus fruits. Researchers compared orange juice and lemonade juices with comparable citrate contents and found that the components that accompany the citrate can alter the effectiveness of the juice in decreasing the risk of developing new kidney stones.

Kidney stones develop when the urine is too concentrated, causing minerals and other chemicals in the urine to bind together. Over time, these crystals combine and grow into a stone.

In the UT Southwestern study, 13 volunteers some with a history of kidney stones and some without underwent three phases, each lasting one week. Chosen in random order, the phases included: a distilled water or control phase; an orange juice phase; and a lemonade phase. There was a three-week interval between phases.

During each phase, volunteers drank 13 ounces of orange juice, lemonade or distilled water three times a day with meals. They also maintained a low-calcium, low-oxalate diet. Urine and blood samples were taken at intervals during each phase. The study was done at UT Southwestern's General Clinical Research Center.

Orange juice, researchers found, boosted the levels of citrate in the urine and reduced the crystallization of uric acid and calcium oxalate the most frequently found ingredient in kidney stones.

But lemonade did not increase the levels of citrate, an important acid neutralizer and inhibitor of kidney stone formation.

"One reason might be the different constituents of various beverages," Dr. Odvina said.

For instance, the citrate in orange and grapefruit juice is accompanied by a potassium ion while the citrate in lemonade and cranberry juice is accompanied by a hydrogen ion. Ions of hydrogen, but not potassium, counteract the beneficial effects of the high citrate content.

"There is an absolute need to consider the accompanying positive charge [of hydrogen ions] whenever one assesses the citrate content of a diet," Dr. Odvina said.


###
The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health.

This news release is available on our World Wide Web home page at http://www.utsouthwestern.edu/home/news/index.html

To automatically receive news releases from UT Southwestern via e-mail, subscribe at www.utsouthwestern.edu/receivenews

Dr. Clarita Odvina - http://www.utsouthwestern.edu/.....64,00.html

*************************************************************

Questions to explore further this topic:

What is the human excretory system?

http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/urin1.htm
http://biology.clc.uc.edu/cour.....kidney.htm
http://www.innerbody.com/image/urinov.html
http://yucky.kids.discovery.co.....00128.html
http://www.spacesciencegroup.o.....=excretory
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/fa.....XCRET.html

The Urinary System: A powerpoint presentation

http://faculty.ccri.edu/jgluck.....NISHED.ppt

Anatomy of the Human Excretory System

http://bioweb.usc.edu/courses/.....32301L.pdf

What are kidneys?

http://coe.fgcu.edu/faculty/greenep/kidney/
http://www.schoolscience.co.uk.....i/kidneys/
http://renux.dmed.ed.ac.uk/edr.....idney.html
http://www.kidshealth.org/kid/....._noSW.html
http://www.stclement.pvt.k12.i.....idneys.htm
http://www.aakp.org/aakp-libra.....e-kidneys/
http://vilenski.org/science/hu.....idney.html
http://www.unis.org/UNIScience.....meset.html

What are the parts of a kidney?

http://coe.fgcu.edu/faculty/gr.....eParts.htm

How do kidneys work?

http://www.kidney.org/kidneydi.....eyswrk.cfm
http://www.kidneypatientguide......theydo.php

What is urine concentration?

http://www.biologyinmotion.com/nephron/index.html

What are kidney stones?

http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/ku...../index.htm
http://www.kidney.org/atoz/atozTopic.cfm?topic=13

What are the diseases of the kidney?

http://links.nephron.com/nephsites/htkw/r0_html

What is nephrology?

http://www.georgetown.edu/depa.....t_info.htm

What is chronic kidney disease?

http://www.kidney.org/kidneydisease/ckd/index.cfm
http://www.uihealthcare.com/to.....sease.html

What is dialysis?

http://www.kidneypatientguide......alysis.php
http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu.....dneys.html
http://www.kidney.org/atoz/atozTopic.cfm?topic=10

What is a kidney transplant?

http://www.kidneypatientguide......plants.php

An online kidney patient guide

http://www.kidneypatientguide......ntents.php

GAMES

http://www.nephron.com/preesrdtester.html
http://www.disability.vic.gov......ary_system
http://www.kidneynca.org/Education_Kids.asp


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 4:36 pm; edited 2 times in total
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adedios
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 29, 2006 5:48 pm    Post subject: Many urinary stones can be treated without surgery Reply with quote

University of Michigan Health System
29 September 2006

Many urinary stones can be treated without surgery

Medications used to treat high blood pressure may be effective treatment
ANN ARBOR, Mich. -- For many patients with urinary stone disease, treatment with a calcium-channel blocker or an alpha blocker can greatly improve their likelihood of passing their urinary stones, which may help these patients avoid surgery, according to an analysis by the University of Michigan Health System.

Urinary stone disease is highly prevalent, afflicting 13 percent of men and 7 percent of women in the United States. While many urinary stones are treated today with minimally invasive techniques, there is growing evidence to suggest that medications can be an effective treatment.

Calcium-channel blockers and alpha blockers are used commonly for management of high blood pressure and enlarged prostates. In this study, published in the Sept. 30 issue of the Lancet, researchers identified and analyzed numerous studies and found that both medications were a successful alternative for treatment of an acute urinary stone episode.

"Surgery is still a necessary treatment for many patients with urinary stones," says senior author Brent K. Hollenbeck, M.D., assistant professor of urology at the U-M Medical School and Comprehensive Cancer Center. "However, for many people, a more conservative approach beginning with a trial of a calcium-channel blocker or an alpha blocker is proving to be efficacious."

Researchers looked at articles about this issue and ultimately analyzed nine trials that included 693 patients. The trials examined the use of calcium-channel blockers or alpha blockers to assist with the passage of urinary stones. In all, they found that patients treated with one of the medications had a 65 percent greater chance of passing the stones spontaneously than patients not given these drugs.

"This suggests that treatment with these medications is an important first step for patients with an acute urinary stone episode," says lead author John M. Hollingsworth, M.D., fifth-year surgery resident with the Department of Urology at the U-M Medical School.

Hollingsworth also notes that the cost of medical treatment for urinary stones would be far lower than with surgery. Nearly 2 million outpatient visits are made annually by patients with urinary stones, with costs for inpatient and outpatient claims totaling $2.1 billion.
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adedios
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 22, 2006 11:20 am    Post subject: New Device Points Way to Artificial Kidney Implants Reply with quote

New Device Points Way to Artificial Kidney Implants

By Scott Fields
Special to LiveScience
posted: 22 November 2006
09:35 am ET

A new hi-tech membrane may soon improve the effectiveness of dialysis and might someday lead to implantable, artificial kidneys.

Though many obstacles remain, researchers say the breakthrough could revolutionize the approach to filtering blood in patients whose kidneys have failed.

The most common dialysis technique, hemodialysis, drains blood from the body, then filters and returns it. It is expensive, sometimes traumatic, and always time consuming. Most patients need several 3- to 4-hour sessions per week, most often in a medical facility.

A second, less frequently used technique, peritoneal dialysis (in which a special fluid is pumped into the patient's abdominal cavity so that the blood can be cleansed internally) shares many of the same problems, although it is less likely to require a medical facility for each session.

Just as troubling is that these kidney stand-ins aren't nearly as good as the real thing. They cleanse the blood of less than 20 percent of the waste that natural, healthy kidneys do.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....lants.html
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ten bagabaldo
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 22, 2006 10:15 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

dear prof.angel,
thank you so much for this very interesting & very educational topic about "KIDNEY" & "ORANGE JUICE"...what about "PINEAPPLE JUICE",is it also as good as orange juice?.

have a nice day!!!

thanks & regards,
ten
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adedios
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Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Wed Nov 22, 2006 10:58 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

ten bagabaldo wrote:
dear prof.angel,
thank you so much for this very interesting & very educational topic about "KIDNEY" & "ORANGE JUICE"...what about "PINEAPPLE JUICE",is it also as good as orange juice?.

have a nice day!!!

thanks & regards,
ten


Pineapple juice, although not from a citrus fruit, also contains citric acid or citrate. The article in this topic, however, points out that it is the citrate form that helps - (this form is dominant in less acidic environment).
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 23, 2006 11:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Salamat po,Prof. Angel...am still enjoying reading this topic...one can pick a lot here & learn from it....thanks again & regards.

ten
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adedios
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PostPosted: Fri Apr 20, 2007 9:54 am    Post subject: Scientists find one reason why bladder cancer hits more men Reply with quote

University of Rochester Medical Center
20 April 2007

Scientists find one reason why bladder cancer hits more men

Scientists have discovered one of the reasons why bladder cancer is so much more prevalent in men than women: A molecular receptor or protein that is much more active in men than women plays a role in the development of the disease. The finding could open the door to new types of treatment with the disease.

In an article in the April 4 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Chawnshang Chang, Ph.D., of the University of Rochester Medical Center and colleagues show that the androgen receptor, which is central to the action of testosterone and other hormones that are much more plentiful in men than women, appears to play a key role in the disease.

In experiments reported in the journal, mice without the receptor had dramatically lower rates of bladder cancer compared to normal mice with the receptor, and human cancer cells with the receptor were much more aggressive than those without it. Mice develop bladder cancer for many of the same reasons people do, and the molecular signals that control cancer development in mice mirror those in humans.

The disease hits about three times as many men as women, including estimates of 50,000 men and 17,000 women in the United States in 2007, according to the American Cancer Society. Some scientists have suspected that male hormones working in concert with the androgen receptor might play a role, but hard evidence has been minimal until now, said Edward Messing, M.D., a bladder cancer expert and chair of Urology. Instead, scientists have suspected that factors like greater exposure of men to cigarettes and industrial chemicals has been responsible.

"For many years, people have recognized that men are more likely than women to get bladder cancer," said Messing, one of the authors of the paper. "More and more women are smoking and working with chemicals in the workplace, yet their bladder cancer rates have not really changed much. There is no longer any question that the androgen receptor is playing a role in bladder cancer."

The work by a team of collaborators from Rochester and from Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine in Japan was led by Chang, director of the George Whipple Laboratory for Cancer Research at the University of Rochester Medical Center and a faculty member in the departments of Urology and Pathology and the James P. Wilmot Cancer Center.

Chang is an expert on the androgen receptor, which is central to many diseases and conditions, most notably prostate cancer. For that disease, hormone therapy to block the supply of hormones that turn on the receptor is a staple of treatment for men with advanced disease. The new findings open the possibility that perhaps someday, drugs that target male hormones, like those used against prostate cancer, might help men with bladder cancer.

The strongest evidence for the involvement of male hormones in bladder cancer was what happened when Chang's team disabled the androgen receptor in mice. While their normal counterparts with the androgen receptor got significant levels of bladder cancer when exposed to a carcinogen 92 percent of the males and 42 percent of the females not a single mouse whose androgen receptor was knocked out developed bladder cancer. The mice without the receptor also had significantly fewer premalignant changes in their bladder.

Besides opening the door to possible new treatments, Chang says the findings could help doctors decide which cases of bladder cancer are most likely to re-occur. His team found a correlation between the frequency of the androgen receptor in tumor cells and the recurrence of the tumor tumors more likely to re-appear had more of the protein. If the finding holds up in wider testing in human tumors, it would help doctors know which patients to treat aggressively right from the start.

The JNCI paper is the latest installment in a body of research Chang has compiled that shows that the story of the androgen receptor and male hormones like testosterone is much more complex than was once thought. For years it's been widely thought by doctors and scientists that all male hormones, and only male hormones, work through the androgen receptor.

But he felt there was more to the story. If anyone would know, it would be Chang, who in 1988 was the first person to clone the androgen receptor, and was the first to discover that the protein needs molecular allies called co-factors to accomplish many of its tasks. Now more than 80 co-factors are known, offering many new targets to stop conditions like male-pattern baldness and diseases like prostate cancer.

Nearly a decade ago, Chang showed that molecules other than male hormones like testosterone are able to activate the androgen receptor. That finding isn't simply gathering dust in textbooks; it likely explains why hormone therapy for men in the advanced stages of prostate cancer ultimately fails. His work explained a long-baffling phenomenon in these patients, where drugs that work well for a few years suddenly make the cancer grow again late in the course of the disease.

In the recent paper, Chang continued this line of work, only in bladder cancer instead of prostate cancer. He took a closer look at the nearly disease-free male mice that didn't get bladder cancer despite exposure to a carcinogen. Some of those mice then received a drug known as DHT, a male hormone. In theory, such a drug only works if the androgen receptor is present, so the drug should not have had an effect. But 25 percent of these mice then got bladder cancer, clear evidence that the hormone is able to somehow side-step the traditional, receptor-mediated, pathway and still have an effect.

The work shows starkly that simply cutting off the supply of hormones like testosterone will have only a limited effect. The androgen receptor can still play a crucial role in the development of cancer, even without the hormones. The team has shown in other studies that even female hormones such as estrogen can turn on the androgen receptor.

"The activity of the androgen receptor is different from the activity of hormones that target the receptor," said Chang. "We've shown very clearly that even without these hormones, the receptor is still active in the development of cancer. This is crucial information as doctors seek to develop treatments for diseases like prostate or bladder cancer in men."

To knock out the androgen receptor, the team used a compound known as ASC-J9, a synthetic chemical compound that is loosely based on a compound found in curcumin. Chang's laboratory, in collaboration with San Diego-based AndroScience Corp., has screened hundreds of compounds for their activity involving the androgen receptor. Just last month, the team showed that ASC-J9 offers promise against a rare neuromuscular disease known as Kennedy's disease.

The compound is now being tested as a cream to treat acne in a clinical trial run by AndroScience, a biotech company founded by Chang, Charles C-Y Shih, and Por-Hsiung Lai in 2000. The University owns a stake in the company, which has licensed several of Chang's research findings.


###
The first author of the paper is Hiroshi Miyamoto, M.D., Ph.D., who was a post-doctoral researcher in Chang's laboratory and is now a medical resident in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. Miyamoto was joined by several of his former colleagues at Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine in Yokohama, Japan, who did much of the work with the human bladder cancer cell lines and analyzed levels of the androgen receptors. Collaborators there include Hitoshi Ishiguro, Hiroji Uemura, Yoshinobu Kubota, and Yoji Nagashima.

Other authors of the paper, in addition to Chang and Messing, are Zhiming Yang, a former graduate student now at Zhejang University and 2nd Hospital in Hangzhou, China; Yei-Tsung Chen and Yueh-Chiang Hu, former graduate students and now researchers at Harvard; Yu-Jia Chang, formerly a post-doctoral researcher with Chang, now an assistant professor at Taipei Medical University and Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan; former graduate student Meng-Yin Tsai, now at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan; and Shuyuan Yeh, associate professor of Urology.
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