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(Bio) Goats: Gen. Abat and the Patriotic Beauty of Goats

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PostPosted: Mon Dec 19, 2005 2:30 pm    Post subject: (Bio) Goats: Gen. Abat and the Patriotic Beauty of Goats Reply with quote

General Abat and the Patriotic Beauty of Goats
By Marit Stinus-Remonde (Manila Times)
Tuesday, December 20, 2005

During a working dinner with the manager of the Visayas-Mindanao
Operations of the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office, I caught a
glimpse on TV of the arrest of retired Gen. Fortunato Abat. Fresh back
from the province I had no idea what it was all about. For four days I had
no opportunity to watch news or read newspapers. But I did feel sorry
for the retired general who, in his advanced age, might actually be
driven by a genuine compassion for his country and countrymen. But
does one have to be president or antagonistic dissident to do something
for one’s country?

The agenda of the dinner meeting that was disrupted by the noisy TV
footage was the ongoing milk-feeding program of more than 2,000 Grade
1 pupils in Cebu. The project is the initiative of William Medici, PCSO’s
top man in the Visayas and Mindanao, who easily convinced his Chairman
Sergio Valencia and General Manager Rosario Uriarte to
mobilize PCSO’s resources for the project. PCSO and the Department of
Education buy the fresh milk from local dairy cooperatives while the
National Dairy Authority and Kiwanis International monitor and document
the project. The project not only addresses malnutrition, it also provides
livelihood for the farmers.

Malnutrition is addressed in two ways—through the daily feeding and
through education of the parents about the nutritional value of fresh dairy

If retired General Abat and other patriotic dissidents fail to see any
revolutionary potential in milk feeding, let me point out that the
government is promoting the local production of milk also because of the
fact that the country spends millions of dollars annually on milk
importation. With the availability of affordable, fresh, locally produced
milk and other dairy products, the country can save some of its foreign

Others are seeing the potential of dairy production. Robert Naraval,
pioneer of Aklan-based Developers Foundation, is contemplating
expanding the foundation’s resource-generating farm by adding dairy
production to its current operations. The potentials of agriculture are
evident in the foundation’s projects in Aklan and Capiz. Where others are
still talking about sustainable (or organic) agriculture, farmers in the two
provinces are not only practicing sustainable agriculture, Developers
Foundation gives annual awards for the most outstanding organic farms.

However, it wasn’t the organic farming that impressed me the most. It
was the “beauty pageant” of the goats. Erich is a German veterinarian
who has previously worked in Tanzania and Laos. His area of
specialization is cattle, but in the Philippines he has found it more feasible
for farmers to raise goats. Erich advises the farmers on the best ways to
raise goats and to protect the health and well-being of the animals. He
trains a pool of para-veterina­rians for Developers. Equipped with a kit
containing essential medicines and tools, the para-vets diagnose and treat
simple ailments in livestock.

Going back to the “goat pageant,” the German veterinarian inspected
hundreds of goats and judged them according to a set of criteria. The
most beautiful animals were photographed and their photos shown on a
Powerpoint presentation during the annual Rural People’s Organizations
Assembly. The proud owners of the winning animals received extra
supplies of vitamins and de­wor­mer as prizes.

The various projects of Developers help the rural folks increase their
incomes. This is necessary considering the lack of employment
opportunities in the province where oftentimes, the government is the
biggest if not the only employer. People more often than not depend on
relatives and connections rather than professional qualifications to get a
job. Electric cooperatives are vulnerable to “contamination” from this mode of hiring.
A local politician reportedly attempted to gain control over
the Aklan Electric Cooperative (Akelco).

Being at the end of the Cebu-Negros-Panay grid, Aklan has to endure
occasional power shortages. While the recently inaugurated second Leyte-
Cebu interconnection added about 150 MW to the grid, the coal- and diesel-
fired power plants at the Salcon complex in Naga, Cebu, are not operational due to the
high cost of imported fuel.

Political meddling is the last thing that Aklan’s electricity consumers need.
They are the ultimate losers when vested interests and not professionalism and efficiency
determine how their electric cooperative is

Tomorrow, December 21, would have been the 71st birthday anniversary
of Teofilo Remonde. Teofilo was a small, dark Cebuano bus conductor. His wife
Florentina was one of the many passengers whose heavy cargo of vegetables and fruits
Teofilo would lift on or off the bus. On Teofilo’s
24th birthday, Florentina gave birth to a baby boy, the couple’s first child.

Unfortunately, Teofilo didn’t live to celebrate his son’s first birthday
anniversary. Illness took his life one month before what would have been
their first joint birthday celebration. Both were born in the Year of the
Dog, a strange coincidence, yet Teofilo would probably have found it even
stranger that his son would one day be celebrating his birthday in Malacańang.
Happy birthday, Secretary Cerge!


There are several topics in this article so we will just focus on one: goat farming.

Questions to explore further this topic:

What are goats?

What is so great about goats?

What are some of the products from goats?

Here are the parts of a goat:

Learn about goats in poor developing countries:

How does one take care of goats?;cat=farm

How does goat's milk compare against cow's milk?

How do goats reproduce?

What are some of the diseases of goats?

Why is goat farming recommended as a good means of livelihood?
(The following is an article from the National Bank of Agriculture in India)

Goat farming in the Philippines


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 3:46 pm; edited 2 times in total
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 24, 2005 11:49 am    Post subject: In Britain, charity goats are becoming the Christmas rage Reply with quote

Sunday, December 25, 2005
In Great Britain, charity goats
are becoming the Christmas rage

By Robert MacPherson

LONDON: The humble goat is stepping out of the nativity scene into the forefront of ethical Christmas gift-giving in Britain this year, with villagers in the poorest parts of Africa reaping the benefits.

Just by going online, holiday shoppers can buy a goat for as little as 24 pounds (35 euros, $42) from a growing number of charities as a novel Yuletide present with a poverty-fighting purpose.

“We are currently running at 55,000 goats this year, which is pretty staggering when you think about it, compared with 30,000 in 2004,” said spokesman Phil Bloomfield of Ox­fam, one of Britain’s biggest aid organizations.

It’s not just goats, either. Oxfam has sold 9,500 donkeys at 50 pounds each through its high-street retail shops and its Oxfam Unwrapped website, which also offers camels for 95 pounds.

In every instance, there are two recipients—the one who gets a personalized card and picture of “their” animal, and the family somewhere in Africa who gets a valuable head of livestock.

“This year we’ve sold 22,614 goats, just to be precise,” Andrea Stephens of World Vision, the Christian charity that first introduced the “charity goat,” told AFP this week as she scrolled through the latest sales data.

“People are looking for something different. They are trying to find unusual ways of buying presents for family and friends and colleagues, particularly those people who are hard to buy for.”

World Vision even sells goats in bulk—91 pounds provided a herd of 13—along with many other ethical gifts from mosquito nets (five pounds) and cleft lip surgery (100 pounds) to a water dam (5,689 pounds).

For many gift-givers, goats are a more tangible way of donating to charity after a year marked by Biblical-scale catastrophe—including the Asian tsunami, the Kashmir earthquake and extreme poverty and hunger in Africa.

Research from the British Red Cross into the public’s attitude to disasters, released Friday, indicated that 79 percent of Britons had reached deep into their pockets for an emergency appeal this year.

Make Poverty History and its rock-concert spin off Live 8 were also factors, after more than 200,000 people marched in Edinburgh in July demanding action on aid, trade and debt relief from the Group of Eight industrialized powers.

The typical charity goat comes from the country or region where it is bought by a charity, then given over to a family or community that can use it to produce milk for resale.

Farm-Africa, a small London-based charity that specializes in village agricultural projects, has been selling goats for two years for 30 pounds each, but its work doesn’t just stop there.

It cross-breeds local goats with Toggenburgs, a venerable Alpine breed, to create “a hearty dairy goat” that can produce four to five liters (up to 1.3 US gallons) of milk a day, said Farm-Africa spokeswoman Sarah Gillam.

“We always target people who are the poorest in the community,” she told AFP. “Some of the people we are working with will be on food aid, and some of them will be very close to that edge.”

To date, Farm-Africa has sold 7,000 goats for Christmas, plus 7,000 chickens and 1,000 sheep, many of them through travel website which advertises them alongside luxury sun holidays and gastronomic dinners.

“Goats don’t really require very much land,” Gillam said, explaining how Farm-Africa also erects a simple but sturdy shelter for each of its goats and supplies seedlings to grow crops to feed it.

As a Christmas gift, Oxfam’s Bloomfield told AFP, “goats seem to be the thing that people really respond to.”

“I have no idea why. I think it’s just because they’re funny, really. People just like the idea of being able to give a goat.”
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 17, 2006 6:45 pm    Post subject: Goat farming in Paete Reply with quote

Isa po sa component ng proyektong "Eco-tourism" sa ating kabundukan ay ang livelihood na pagpaparami ng mga kambing. Noon pong June 30, ay iniahon na ni G. Tony dela Rosa, Pambayang Agrikulturista ang 22 kambing upang alagaan ng samahang itinatag para sa proyektong ito. Ang pabakod, bahay at damong partikular na pagkain ng mga kambing na ito ay naisagawa ng lahat.

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PostPosted: Fri Aug 04, 2006 7:10 am    Post subject: Transgenic goat's milk Reply with quote

University of California - Davis
4 August 2006

Transgenic goat's milk offers hope for tackling children's intestinal disease

It's hard to improve on milk, but animal scientists at the University of California, Davis, have found that milk produced by transgenic goats, which carry the gene for an antibacterial enzyme found in human breast milk, altered the intestinal bacteria in young goats and pigs that were fed the milk.
The researchers hope these findings will one day lead to milk that protects infants and children against diarrheal illnesses, which each year kill more than 2 million children worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. The results of their study will be reported in the August issue of the international journal Transgenic Research.

"This goat's milk represents one of the first transgenic food products that has the potential to really benefit human health," said Professor Jim Murray, who led the study along with Professor Gary Anderson and animal scientist Elizabeth Maga. "The results of the study indicate that the protective, antibacterial characteristics of lysozyme-rich human breast milk are also present in milk produced by transgenic goats that carry the gene for lysozyme."


Lysozyme is a protein found in the tears, saliva and milk of all mammals. It is found at high levels in human breast milk, however goat's milk contains only 0.06 percent as much lysozyme as does human milk. Lysozyme inhibits the growth of bacteria by destroying the bacterial cell wall, causing the contents of the cell to leak out.

Because lysozyme limits the growth of bacteria that cause intestinal infections and diarrhea, and encourages the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria, lysozyme is considered to be one of the main components of human milk that contribute to the health and well-being of breast-fed infants.

For more than a decade, UC Davis researchers have been looking for ways to enrich the milk of cows and goats with some of the beneficial compounds like lysozyme that are found in human breast milk. About eight years ago, they used gene-transfer technology to develop a line of transgenic dairy goats that carry the gene for human lysozyme and, consequently, produce human lysozyme in their milk.

The UC Davis Study

In this study, the researchers fed pasteurized, lysozyme-rich milk produced by transgenic dairy goats to young goats and pigs. Pasteurized milk from non-transgenic goats was fed to the control group of pigs and goats.

The pigs were chosen because they have a digestive system similar to humans and are often used as a research model for humans. In this study, the pigs provide a glimpse of how such milk might impact people's digestive systems.

The kid goats were chosen for the other model in order to study the effect of the transgenic milk on ruminants -- animals like goats, sheep and cows -- which have multi-chambered stomachs.

In both animal models, the results of this study indicated that the milk from the transgenic goats was impacting the growth of digestive-tract bacteria -- although with opposite results.

The young pigs fed the lysozyme-rich milk from transgenic goats had lower levels of coliform bacteria in the small intestine, including fewer Escherichia coli (E. coli), than did the control group of young pigs that were fed milk from non-transgenic goats. Some strains of E. coli can cause severe intestinal illness.

However, the kid goats fed lysozyme-rich goat's milk, had higher levels of coliform bacteria and roughly the same level of E. coli, compared to control group.

Both the kid goats and the young pigs were healthy and exhibited normal growth patterns.

"Although the effects were different in the goats than in the pigs, the study demonstrates clearly that the consumption of pasteurized goat's milk containing human lysozyme can impact the bacterial makeup of the digestive tract in these two distinct animal models," Maga said. "It is likely that the differences observed in the two species were due to the fact that goats, being ruminants, have a different digestive system and different collection of bacteria than do the pigs, which have only one stomach."

Maga and Murray suggested that larger, more in-depth studies are needed to examine other possible benefits of the lysozyme-rich milk from the transgenic goats.


"This study underscores the potential for using biotechnology to improve the healthfulness of the milk of dairy animals by introducing the beneficial properties of human milk into dairy animals, Murray said.

He and Maga note that this procedure could be used to produce lysozyme-rich powdered milk and eventually transgenic dairy goat herds for developing nations, where intestinal diseases threaten the lives of infants and children. They project that the potential for even more widespread benefit could be realized if this technology is applied to dairy cattle, rather than goats, because the volume of milk available from cows would be much larger than from goats.

This study was funded by a UC Davis faculty grant.
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PostPosted: Tue Apr 10, 2007 1:31 pm    Post subject: Davao's goat center Reply with quote

Wednesday, April 11, 2007
Davao's goat center
By Henrylito D. Tacio

THE Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center (MBRLC) Foundation, Inc. is not only known for its sustainable upland farming systems, but also for its goats. In fact, it has earned the moniker as the goat center of Davao del Sur.

"If you are looking for good goats in the province, then you better go to MBRLC," says a provincial government official.

MBRLC is located in the rolling foothills of Mount Apo, in Barangay Kinuskusan, Bansalan, Davao del Sur. It was founded by American agriculturist Harold Ray Watson, recipient of the 1985 Ramon Magsaysay Award for international understanding.

The MBRLC is known internationally as the originator of Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (Salt) and its three other modifications.

Salt is a method of growing field and permanent crops in bands of three to five meters wide between rows of different nitrogen fixing trees and shrubs.

But MBRLC is also known for its goats. "Only a few Filipinos raise goats on a large scale," says Roy C. Alimoane, the current director of MBRLC. "In fact, our goat population has remained small -- about two million more or less."

Records from the Department of Agriculture showed that goats are widely distributed throughout the country. However, they are more heavily concentrated in central and western Visayas, central Luzon, Ilocos, and the southern Tagalog provinces.

"Ninety-nine percent of the goats are raised by small-scale farmers," Alimoane says.

In recent years, Alimoane observes that goat-raising is becoming popular.
"A lot of people come to the center just to buy goats," he informs. "Some of them travel all the way from Cebu or Zamboanga. There are even those who want to buy four to six pairs."

There are several reasons why more farmers are now raising goats. For one, goats require smaller capital investment than cattle. They multiply faster than cattle or carabaos.

They also require less feed than cows and carabaos.

Goats are usually docile and can be raised by anyone -- even children. Under orchard and coconut plantations, goats are good clippers of weeds.

They also provide manure for fishponds, farms, and gardens. In some cases, farmers can use goats as an "insurance" against the failure of their crops.

But more importantly, goats are a good source of milk. "A female goat can produce as much as four liters of milk everyday if she is purebred and is given a ration to meet all her nutritional requirements," says Alimoane.

Goat's Milk

In the past, when the center started producing goat's milk in bulk, not too many people within the vicinity wanted to drink the milk. Joyce Watson, Harold's wife, had to go to municipal hall and gave the milk to the people.

Although the milk was free, people won't still drink the goat's milk. "People at that time were biased towards cow's milk," recalls Rodolfo Dedeles, then the center's goat supervisor. "Education was lacking that goat's milk is next to mother's milk."

Today, the scenario is completely changed. People even drop by at the center's sales office just to buy goat's milk.

At the center, fresh goat's milk is sold at P18 (300 mL), P25 (500 mL), and P47 (1000 mL).

Goat's milk mixed with chocolate and sugar is sold at the following prices: P21 (300 mL), P30 (500 mL), and P57 (1000 mL). Goat's milk can also be bought outside the center but at higher prices.

Salt 2

Since goats are in big demand, the center decided to integrate it with its Salt system. In 1985, Simple Agro-Livestock Technology (Salt 2) came into existence.

Salt 2 aims to make the small upland farmer's production sufficient even in a very limited land area of only 3/4 hectare.

Salt 2 is a goat-based agroforestry system with a land utilization of 40 percent for agriculture, 40 percent for livestock (particularly goats), and 20 percent for forestry.

"Like the original Salt," Celeste says, "hedgerows of different nitrogen-fixing trees and shrubs are established on the contour lines."

Here's how Salt 2 looks like: The goat barn is built at the center of the farm. The upper half is planted to three-fourths permanent crops (like coffee, cacao, calamansi, and black pepper) and one-fourth short-term crops (such as beans, peanut, and corn). The other half of the farm is devoted to forage crops, which are used as feeds for goats.

The goat manure is utilized as fertilizer both for the agricultural crops and the forage crops.
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PostPosted: Fri May 04, 2007 2:38 pm    Post subject: Good forage: Key to successful goat raising Reply with quote

Saturday, May 05, 2007
Good forage: Key to successful goat raising
By Janoz Xn Yesu S. Laquihon and Henrylito D. Tacio

"THERE are grasses around my area. I can get them from the roadsides, under coconut trees, and even in our backyard," replied Manong Doming, a recipient of goat dispersal program of a government project.

Manong Doming was given five upgraded does. But after six months, he sold his breeding stock due to shortage of forage.

"There was a drought," he explained, adding that other recipients like him also got their forage from the same area where he used to harvest. "I don't want trouble," he said on why he sold his goats.

When asked how much he received for the goats, he answered, "I sold them half the original price. My goats were thin and no one would like to buy it if I sell them at the original price."

Most backyard goat raisers often overlook the importance of nutrition as one of the leading factors in goat production.

"Good nutrition gives good production and consequently higher income," points out a livestock specialist. "This can be only achieved if you have good quality forage for your animals."

Although forage is main source of nutrients that most goats need, forage isn't enough to meet the nutrient requirement for production. Concentrates are also needed.

Complete grazing and tethering feeding systems are common to backyard farmers who raise 3-5 native does. Most of the large scale farmers, on the other hand, use semi-confinement system and most of them raise upgraded goats and crosses. But whatever system a farmer adopts, he needs to have a good pasture area. Before buying the breeding stock, a farmer must prepare the forage area, which should be large enough to meet the dry matter (DM) requirement per animal per year.

But even before that, a farmer must know kinds of plants are growing in the farm. Are these plants non-beneficial or not? Most plants with broad-leaves are considered poisonous to animals so they must be eliminated from the pasture area. Among these plants are "talong-talungan," "lantana," "barak," "hagonoy," "mangkit," and "kudzu" (which causes diarrhea among animals).

Among the beneficial plants that could be used for goats are grasses like "kulape," "balbas kalabaw," "baning usa," "tinitigro," "Digitaria species," and "Cyperus species." The following legumes are also palatable to goats: "makahiya," "centrosema," "paying pyang," "balatong aso," "maning aso," "tagum-tagum," and "Desmodium pulcellum."

Some goats also like to eat such broad-leafy plants like "sapin-sapin," "luya-luyahan," "tuhod manok," and "dilang aso" and shrub-type trees like "ipil-ipil," "kakawate" and "bayabas."

In Mindanao, most farmers plant native grasses and improved grasses for their goats. Few farmers use legumes as forage.

One of the authors, Janoz Laquihon, recommends legumes. In an exclusive interview, he shares this information: "I prefer legumes as main feed since I started raising goats in 1978. When I was still in high school, I used to wake up at five in the morning to help my father established our forage area. We planted rows of ipil-ipil seeds in the foothills of Mount Carmel, just adjacent to Mount Apo.

I wondered why we planted ipil-ipil. I didn't know the answer until I was in college. I learned that legumes have higher nutritive value and digestibility compared to improved pasture grasses. In addition, legumes are nitrogen fixers compared to grasses which are 'parasite of soil' since they sap nutrient from soil thus competing with other plants in the farm. When growing grasses, an addition cost is added in terms of fertilizer. Not with legumes as they fix nitrogen from the air."
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