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(Anatomy) (Health) Bones: Preventing Bone Loss

 
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 13, 2005 7:30 pm    Post subject: (Anatomy) (Health) Bones: Preventing Bone Loss Reply with quote






One of the nine concepts in science is the system. A system consists of parts - and an understanding of how these individual parts fit together and work as a unit is important in science. There are several examples of systems and some of the best examples are those found in our bodies. This lesson deals with the skeletal system and the following website provides a good introduction to children:

http://yucky.kids.discovery.co.....00124.html

Systems can malfunction and in the case of a human body, this malfunctioning is considered a disease. The skeletal system can suffer from bone loss. Explore this and more on the links that are provided at the end of the news article.



One drug tackles two diseases, Case researcher finds
Prevent bone loss, periodontal disease

Press Release
Case Western Reserve University
December 2, 2005 | For more information: Susan Griffith 216-368-1004

Drugs that reverse and prevent bone loss due to osteoporosis also significantly ward off periodontal disease, according to a graduate of the Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine who reports in the current Menopause journal article, “Periodontal Assessments of Postmenopausal Women Receiving Risedronate.”

Leena Bahl Palomo, D.D.S and M.S.D., is the lead author on the study with Nabil Bissada, chair and professor of Case’s department of periodontology; and James Liu, chair of the department of obstetrics and gynecology of University Hospitals of Cleveland.

During her graduate studies at Case, Palomo conducted one of the first studies to look at the impact of a group of bisphosphonates therapies for women with moderate and mild cases of osteoporosis and periodontal disease.

The study involved 60 postmenopausal women, who had been diagnosed with osteoporosis by doctors at University Hospitals of Cleveland and who had visited the Case dental clinics. She compared the women, who had been on daily or weekly bisphosphonate for at least three months to regenerate bone mass to those on no medications for the disease. The women were between the ages of 51 and 79, had T scores on bone scans of the hip or spine of 22.5. Half the group weighed approximately 127 pounds, and the overall study participants had similar alcohol and coffee daily intakes. The study participants did not smoke or use tobacco or estrogen products or have chronic medical conditions like diabetes that would increase the risks of periodontal disease. The risedronate group reported a higher use of vitamins and calcium supplements.

Each woman received an x-ray of the teeth and jaw and an oral examination that assessed the amount of inflammation, depth of the periodontal pocket, recession of the gums, mobility of the teeth and the presence of plaque—the standard parameters for gum disease as established by the American Academy of Periodontology. The examiner was unaware of who took medication.

In five of the six parameters, the risedronate therapy group had healthier periodontal status. Gum recession was not significantly different for either group.

The therapy group had significantly less plaque, which is an early indicator for periodontal disease. According to the researchers, risedronate therapy “is altering the periodontal status.”

“We found a significant difference between the women who used the medications from the women who did not,” said Palomo. “In the same way that the bisphosphonate is helping to prevent hip and vertebral fractures, the medications also prevent the loss of bone in the jaws—the bones which support the teeth.”

“With a close link established between osteoporosis and periodontal disease, similar treatment and management of the disease might minimize tooth loss and the destruction of the alveolar (jaw) bone,” reported Palomo.

Because bone loss is a “silent disease,” and is many times diagnosed in older women after a hip or bone fracture, the researcher said dentists have the opportunity to observe signs of osteoporosis during a dental exam and can refer patients to the internist or gynecologist for a bone scan.

Palomo conducted the work under the direction of her thesis adviser, Bissada, and Liu from University Hospitals of Cleveland.

“This is more evidence to support the view of the mouth being a mirror of what’s happening in the body,” said Bissada. Case researchers have also found a link between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease and complications in pregnancy.

“It also is nice to see that one medicine can help two diseases at the same time,” added Bissada.

“Drug companies are interested in better bone status for women,” said Palomo, whose research was funded by Procter & Gamble, a maker of one of the leading brands of the bisphosphonate therapies for osteoporosis.

The researchers also suggest that this study could be used as a pilot for a longitudinal study to see what the long-term impact of risedronate therapy has on periodontal disease.

Palomo, who is a practicing periodontist in the Cleveland area, is a 2004 graduate of the periodontology program at Case, where she also earned her doctor of dental medicine degree in 2000 and her bachelor’s degree in psychology and biology in 1996. Her research also won honors from the Midwest Society of Periodontology for her thesis paper, which was written as a requirement for her master’s degree in periodontology. She presented the research findings to the 1,000 attendees at the society’s annual meeting in Chicago.

About Case Western Reserve University
Case is among the nation's leading research institutions. Founded in 1826 and shaped by the unique merger of the Case Institute of Technology and Western Reserve University, Case is distinguished by its strengths in education, research, service, and experiential learning. Located in Cleveland, Case offers nationally recognized programs in the Arts and Sciences, Dental Medicine, Engineering, Law, Management, Medicine, Nursing, and Social Work. http://www.case.edu

************************************************************

Questions to explore further this topic:

What are bones?

http://yucky.kids.discovery.co.....00124.html
http://kidshealth.org/kid/body/bones_noSW.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/kids/bones.shtml
http://www.medphysics.wisc.edu/~jrc/art6.htm
http://kidshealth.org/parent/g.....oints.html

Why are bones important?

http://yucky.kids.discovery.co.....00124.html
http://vilenski.org/science/hu.....leton.html

What is the structure of bones?

http://depts.washington.edu/bo.....cture.html

What kind of cells are found inside bones?

http://depts.washington.edu/bo.....cells.html

What is inside bones? (looking through a microscope)

http://depts.washington.edu/bo.....histo.html

Can bones heal?

http://depts.washington.edu/bo.....remod.html

What is needed to make bones stronger?

http://depts.washington.edu/bo.....intro.html

What foods have calcium and how much?

http://depts.washington.edu/bo.....scale.html
http://depts.washington.edu/bo.....lcium.html

Does exercise help increase bone density?

http://depts.washington.edu/bo.....ports.html

Names and pictures of bones:

http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lum.....n_bone.htm

What are teeth?

http://kidshealth.org/kid/body/teeth_noSW.html

What are periodontal diseases?

http://www.stlouischildrens.or.....p;aid=2556

What are the diseases of the bone?

http://depts.washington.edu/bo.....eases.html

What is osteoporosis?

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medline.....0_no_0.htm
http://kidshealth.org/kid/grow.....rosis.html
http://courses.washington.edu/...../opop.html

What is risedronate?

http://www.breastcancer.org/di.....ate_t.html

GAMES

http://www.childrensmuseum.org.....zeGame.htm
http://www.stlouischildrens.or.....x?tabid=84
http://depts.washington.edu/bo.....aayah.html


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 4:32 pm; edited 5 times in total
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 23, 2005 10:18 am    Post subject: Magnesium In Your Diet Could Lead To Stronger Bones Reply with quote

URL: http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....085058.htm

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Magnesium In Your Diet Could Lead To Stronger Bones

Intake of magnesium through diet and supplements is positively associated with bone density throughout the whole body, particularly in older white adults, according to research published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. Researchers say the effects are similar to that of calcium.

Over 2,000 black and white men and women ages 70-79 years old were asked to complete a questionnaire to determine how much magnesium they were receiving from food and various supplements. Additionally, researchers performed bone mineral density tests on the participants.

The study revealed that those who ingested more magnesium had significantly higher bone density than those who got the least amount of magnesium. For every 100 milligram per day increase in magnesium intake, data showed a 1% increase in bone density.

However, this link was only true for the older white men and women. Previous research has demonstrated that black men and women may process vitamin D and other calcium regulating hormones differently than whites, thus possibly explaining the lack of association between magnesium and bone density among them in this study.

"Although this [1% increase] seems small, increases across a population may have large public health impact," states lead researcher Kathryn M. Ryder.

The recommended daily allowance of magnesium is 320 mg/day for women and 420/mg day for men in this age group. Most people in this age group get far less than this daily amount.



###
This study is published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. For more information on this topic and to read additional patient-friendly summaries of articles in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, please visit http://www.healthinaging.org/a.....earch.asp.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

This story has been adapted from a news release issued by Blackwell Publishing Ltd..
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PostPosted: Thu Jun 08, 2006 11:03 am    Post subject: New Human Bone Made of Seaweed and Crustaceans Reply with quote

New Human Bone Made of Seaweed and Crustaceans

By Scott Fields
Special to LiveScience
posted: 08 June 2006
09:38 am ET



Seaweed, crustacean shells, and a patient's own cells may allow doctors to improve bone grafts.

To fill gaps in a bone—which can result from accidents or surgery, especially when some kinds of tumors are cut away— surgeons will often craft a scaffold made of carbon nanotubes or other artificial material. Once in place, cells from the surrounding bone find their way to the scaffold and reproduce, forming new bone.

But there's a catch, or more accurately, two, says Hockin Xu, a research scientist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....ement.html
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PostPosted: Fri Oct 06, 2006 9:06 am    Post subject: Consuming cola may up osteoporosis risk for older women Reply with quote

Tufts University
6 October 2006

Consuming cola may up osteoporosis risk for older women

Epidemiological study finds that cola is associated with bone mineral density loss
Boston -- According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation, approximately 55 percent of Americans, mostly women, are at risk of developing osteoporosis, a disease of porous and brittle bones that causes higher susceptibility to bone fractures. Now, Katherine Tucker, PhD, director of the Epidemiology and Dietary Assessment Program at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, and colleagues have reported findings in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition that cola, a popular beverage for many Americans, may contribute to lower bone mineral density in older women, a condition which increases risk for osteoporosis.

Tucker, also a professor at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts, and colleagues analyzed dietary questionnaires and bone mineral density measurements at the spine and three different hip sites of more than 2,500 people in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study whose average age was just below 60. In women, cola consumption was associated with lower bone mineral density at all three hip sites, regardless of factors such as age, menopausal status, total calcium and vitamin D intake, or use of cigarettes or alcohol.

However, cola consumption was not associated with lower bone mineral density for men at the hip sites, or the spine for either men or women. The results were similar for diet cola and, although weaker, for decaffeinated cola as well.

Men reported drinking an average of six carbonated drinks a week, with five being cola, and women reported consuming an average of five carbonated drinks a week, four of which were cola. Serving size was defined as one bottle, can or glass of cola. "The more cola that women drank, the lower their bone mineral density was," says Tucker, who is corresponding author of the study. "However, we did not see an association with bone mineral density loss for women who drank carbonated beverages that were not cola."

"Carbonated soft-drink consumption increased more than three-fold" between 1960 and 1990, cite the authors. They also note that more than 70 percent of the carbonated beverages consumed by people in the study were colas, all of which contain phosphoric acid, an ingredient that is not likely to be found in non-cola carbonated beverages.

While previous studies have suggested that cola contributes to bone mineral density loss because it replaces milk in the diet, Tucker determined that women in the study who consumed higher amounts of cola did not have a lower intake of milk than women who consumed fewer colas. However, the authors did conclude that calcium intake from all sources, including non-dairy sources such as dark leafy greens or beans, was lower for women who drank the most cola. On average, women consumed 1,000 milligrams of calcium per day, and men consumed 800 milligrams per day, both lower than the daily recommended 1,200 daily milligrams for adults over age 50.

"Physiologically, a diet low in calcium and high in phosphorus may promote bone loss, tipping the balance of bone remodeling toward calcium loss from the bone. Although some studies have countered that the amount of phosphoric acid in cola is negligible compared to other dietary sources such as chicken or cheese," Tucker says, "further controlled studies should be conducted to determine whether habitual cola drinkers may be adversely affecting their bone health by regularly consuming doses of phosphoric acid that do not contain calcium or another neutralizing ingredient."

Tucker stresses that as with any epidemiological study, the results should be taken with caution. "We are not certain why women who drank more cola also had lower bone mineral density," says Tucker. Although adjustment for fruit juice intake did not change results, women in the study who drank a considerable amount of cola not only consumed less calcium, but less fruit juice as well. Previous studies have also shown that low fruit and vegetable intake may affect bone mineral density.

The message from experts is clear that overall nutritional choices can affect bone health, but "there is no concrete evidence that an occasional cola will harm the bones," says Tucker. "However, women concerned about osteoporosis may want to steer away from frequent consumption of cola until further studies are conducted."


###
Tucker, KL, Morita, K, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Cupples A, Kiel DP. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (October) 2006; 84(4). "Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study."

If you are interested in learning more about these topics, or speaking with a faculty member at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University, or another Tufts health sciences researcher, please contact Siobhan Gallagher at 617-636-6586 or Peggy Hayes at 617-636-3707.

The Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University is the only independent school of nutrition in the United States. The school's eight centers, which focus on questions relating to famine, hunger, poverty, and communications, are renowned for the application of scientific research to national and international policy. For two decades, the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University has studied the relationship between good nutrition and good health in aging populations. Tufts research scientists work with federal agencies to establish the USDA Dietary Guidelines, the Dietary Reference Intakes, and other significant public policies.
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PostPosted: Wed Jan 03, 2007 11:00 am    Post subject: Dentists could detect osteoporosis, automatically Reply with quote

University of Manchester
2 January 2006

Dentists could detect osteoporosis, automatically

Researchers in the School of Dentistry at The University of Manchester have created a unique way of identifying osteoporosis sufferers from ordinary dental x-rays.

Professor Keith Horner and Dr Hugh Devlin co-ordinated a three year, EU-funded collaboration with the Universities of Athens, Leuven, Amsterdam and Malmo, to develop the largely automated approach to detecting the disease. Their findings are published online by the Elsevier journal Bone.

Osteoporosis affects almost 15% of Western women in their fifties, 22% in their sixties and 38.5% in their seventies. As many as 70% of women over 80 are at risk*, and the condition carries a high risk of bone fractures - over a third of adult women falling victim at least once in their lifetime.

Despite these figures and pressure from the EU to improve the identification of people at risk, wide-scale screening for the disease is not currently viable - largely due to the cost and scarcity of specialist equipment and staff.

The team has therefore developed a revolutionary, software-based approach to detecting osteoporosis during routine dental x-rays, by automatically measuring the thickness of part of the patient's lower jaw.

X-rays are used widely in the NHS to examine wisdom teeth, gum disease and during general check-ups, and their use is on the rise. In 2005 almost 6000 were taken on female patients aged 65 or over in a single month, and the number taken has increased by 181% since 1981**.

To harness these high usage-rates, the team has drawn on 'active shape modeling' technology developed by the University's Division of Imaging Sciences to automatically detect jaw cortex widths of less than 3mm - a key indicator of osteoporosis - during the x-ray process, and alert the dentist.

Professor Horner explained: "At the start of our study we tested 652 women for osteoporosis using the current 'gold standard', and highly expensive, DXA test. This identified 140 sufferers.

"Our automated X-ray test immediately flagged-up over half of these. The patients concerned may not otherwise have been tested for osteoporosis, and in a real-life situation would immediately be referred for conclusive DXA testing.

"This cheap, simple and largely-automated approach could be carried out by every dentist taking routine x-rays, yet the success rate is as good as having a specialist consultant on hand."

Dr Devlin continued: "As well as being virtually no extra work for the dentist, the diagnosis does not depend on patients being aware that they are at risk of the disease. Just by introducing a simple tool and getting healthcare professionals working together, around two in five sufferers undertaking routine dental x-rays could be identified.

"We're extremely encouraged by our findings, and keen to see the approach adopted within the NHS. The next stage will be for an x-ray equipment company to integrate the software with its products, and once it's available to dentists we'd hope that entire primary care trusts might opt in.

"The test might even encourage older women to visit the dentist more regularly!"

###
For further information or to arrange an interview please contact:
Mikaela Sitford: 0161 275 2111/mikaela.sitford@manchester.ac.uk (Weds pm - Fri)

Comparative images of dental x-rays showing an 'at risk' and 'normal' lower jaws are available upon request. Professor Horner and Dr Devlin are available for interview, photography and filming, and to demonstrate the software in action.

X-ray equipment companies interested in discussing the integration of this software with its products should also make contact via the press office.

Notes for Editors

"Automated osteoporosis risk assessment by dentists: a new pathway to diagnosis" is published in Bone (Elsevier)
* source: The World Health Organisation (1994) ** source: The Dental Practice Board (which processes financial claims for NHS dental treatment from dentists in England and Wales, 2005)

The University of Manchester (www.manchester.ac.uk) is the largest single-site higher education institution in the country, with 24 academic schools, over 5200 academic and research staff and around 36 000 students. It was awarded University of the Year by the Times Higher Educational Supplement in 2005 and The Sunday Times in 2006, and receives more undergraduate applications than any other UK university.

Manchester School of Dentistry has a strong track record as an innovator in teaching and learning, introducing an outreach programme as early as 1974 – some thirty years before most of its competitors. It is consistently rated as one of the best dental schools in the UK and was recently awarded maximum points in the Government's Teaching Quality review, with special commendation for its student support, IT infrastructure and use of problem-based learning.

It comprises around 500 students and 40 academic staff, and conducts research with the overall aim of understanding the scientific basis of craniofacial and oral health. It incorporates two research themes:

Health Sciences undertaking clinical trials, population-based studies and systematic reviews (includes the Dental Health Unit funded by Colgate-Palmolive and the NHS-funded Cochrane Oral Health Group)
Basic Science, working in craniofacial research and biomaterials research and development for dentistry.

The School is committed to improving the health of the community, directly providing care via its Dental Hospital, outreach clinics in Greater Manchester and its strong links with local Primary Care Trusts. www.manchester.ac.uk/dentistry
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PostPosted: Tue Mar 06, 2007 7:14 am    Post subject: NIH researchers discover protein that appears to regulate bo Reply with quote

NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
5 March 2007

NIH researchers discover protein that appears to regulate bone mass loss, the cause of osteoporosis

WHAT: An estimated ten million Americans suffer from osteoporosis, and another 34 million Americans are at risk of developing the disease, which is characterized by a severe loss of bone mineral density, fragile bones and an increased risk of hip, spine and wrist fractures. The basic mechanism behind osteoporosis involves an imbalance between bone mineral formation and loss, but the detailed biological processes that lead to this imbalance are not completely understood. Now researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and colleagues are reporting new insights into the biology of bone loss based on a study of 14 people with a rare genetic disorder called X-linked Hyper IgM Syndrome.

X-linked Hyper IgM Syndrome strikes about one in a million American--all males--and is caused by a deficiency in an important immune system protein known as CD40 ligand. This protein is crucial for the development and maturation of immune cells, and without it people with X-linked Hyper IgM Syndrome are susceptible to a range of opportunistic infections. Last year, an NIAID doctor treating children with this disease observed that several of them sustained unexplained rib fractures that he hypothesized could be, like osteoporosis, caused by a loss of bone mineral density. A new study, published online this week, confirms this unexpected connection. CD40 ligand appears to regulate cells that secrete chemicals that block bone metabolism, and the loss of this protein in people with X-linked Hyper IgM Syndrome appears to accelerate bone loss. The next step, say the researchers, is to determine whether experimental treatments designed to correct the immune deficiency of X-linked Hyper IgM Syndrome can also reverse the bone loss. If so, the knowledge gained from these studies may benefit people at risk of developing osteoporosis.


###
ARTICLE: "Osteopenia in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome reveals a regulatory role for CD40 ligand in osteoclastogenesis." E Lopez-Granados et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0605715104 (2007). This study was conducted by scientists at NIAID, the National Cancer Institute, the NIH Clinical Center, and Shriners Hospital at McGill University in Montreal.

SPOKESPERSON: Ashish Jain, M.D., Clinical Investigator, Laboratory of Host Defenses, NIAID Division of Intramural Research, is available to comment on the study's findings.

CONTACT: To schedule interviews, contact Jason Bardi in the NIAID News and Public Information Branch, (301) 402-1663, jbardi@niaid.nih.gov.

NIAID is a component of the National Institutes of Health. NIAID supports basic and applied research to prevent, diagnose and treat infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections, influenza, tuberculosis, malaria and illness from potential agents of bioterrorism. NIAID also supports research on basic immunology, transplantation and immune-related disorders, including autoimmune diseases, asthma and allergies.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH)--The Nation's Medical Research Agency--includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting basic, clinical and translational medical research, and it investigates the causes, treatments and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov.

News releases, fact sheets and other NIAID-related materials are available on the NIAID Web site at http://www.niaid.nih.gov.
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 23, 2007 2:28 pm    Post subject: Study Describes Action of Estrogen in Protecting Bone Reply with quote

Study Describes Action of Estrogen in Protecting Bone

University of Buffalo

03/23/07


BUFFALO, N.Y. -- Researchers at the University at Buffalo have described a novel pathway by which estradiol, the primary estrogen in humans, aids in maintaining bone density, a function critical to avoiding osteoporosis.

It is well known that estrogen is essential for healthy bone, and that when the production of estrogen is reduced, as occurs normally in postmenopausal women and pathogenically after exposure to radiation or chemotherapeutic drugs, bones become brittle and break easily. However, the mechanisms involved aren't clearly understood.

The new study found that one way estradiol helps to maintain bone density is by stopping the activation of an enzyme known as caspase-3. Also called the executioner caspase, caspase-3 is the central player in initiating the process of apoptosis, or programmed cell death of osteoblasts, the bone cells that aid in the growth and development of new bone and teeth.

Results of the study will be presented Friday, March 23, at the International Association of Dental Research meeting in New Orleans.

Peter G. Bradford, Ph.D., senior author on the study said of the results: "Basic and clinical studies have shown that estrogens can prevent both bone loss and reduce the incidence of bone fractures. Our research at the molecular and cellular level suggests that the underlying basis of this protective effect of estrogens involves the prevention of apoptosis in osteoblasts and that the key event in this prevention is the inhibition of caspase-3 activity."

Bradford is an associate professor of pharmacology and toxicology in the UB School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and associate professor of oral biology in the UB School of Dental Medicine. Kenneth V. Gerace, a third-year dental student in his laboratory, is first author on the study.

To determine the effect of estradiol on caspase-3 activity, one group of human osteoblasts was treated with estradiol for 24 hours and another group was not. Both groups then were exposed for 24 hours to a drug called etoposide, a cancer chemotherapeutic drug that promotes apoptosis.

Results showed that caspace-3 activity decreased in cells treated with estrogen, but increased in cells not treated with estrogen.

"These findings support our hypotheses that the anti-osteoporotic effects of estradiol may result in part from its anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts," said Bradford.

"We now are investigating the biochemical mechanisms that mediate the estrogen-dependent inhibition of caspase-3 activity in osteoblasts and whether other pharmacological or nutritional agents might mimic or aid this action of estradiol."

Brian G. Chrzan, a UB orthodontic resident and oral biology doctoral candidate, also contributed to the research.

Fellowship support for Gerace was provided by a research training grant from the National Institutes of Health.

The University at Buffalo is a premier research-intensive public university, the largest and most comprehensive campus in the State University of New York. The School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and School of Dental Medicine are two of five schools that constitute UB's Academic Health Center.
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PostPosted: Wed May 09, 2007 7:52 am    Post subject: Molecule That Destroys Bone Also Protects It, New Research S Reply with quote

Molecule That Destroys Bone Also Protects It, New Research Shows
University at Buffalo
Release Date

05/07/07

Buffalo, N.Y. -- An immune system component that is a primary cause of bone destruction and inflammation in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis actually protects bone in the oral cavity from infectious pathogens that play a major role in periodontal disease in humans, research at the University at Buffalo has shown.

The component, IL-17, was recognized only in the past 18 months to be a primary cause of bone destruction and inflammation in autoimmune diseases. Therapies that target IL-17 or its cellular receptor currently are being developed.

However, a UB molecular biologist has discovered that, in contrast to its action in rheumatoid arthritis(RA), IL-17 actually protects bone in the oral cavity from infectious pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium that plays a major role in most periodontal disease in humans.

The research findings appear in the current (May) issue of the journal Blood.

Sarah L. Gaffen, Ph.D., associate professor of oral biology in the UB School of Dental Medicine and associate professor of microbiology and immunology in the UB School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, is senior author. Jeffrey J. Yu, a medical student and doctoral candidate who is a researcher working in Gaffen's lab, is first author.

Gaffen and colleagues conducted the research in mice bred to have no receptors for IL-17. Other researchers had shown previously, using rats and mice as animal models, that blocking the receptor for IL-17 could be an effective therapy for RA and possibly for other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, colitis, psoriasis and lupus.

The effects of an IL-17 deficiency in periodontal disease, however, were unknown, so Gaffen's lab set out to investigate.

"I predicted these mice without the IL-17 receptor were going to be protected from periodontal bone loss, just like they're protected from arthritic bone loss," Gaffen said. "In fact, we got the opposite result. The mice without IL-17 were much more susceptible to bone loss caused by periodontal disease, compared to normal mice.

"What's the difference between an autoimmune disease like RA and periodontal disease? Periodontal disease is an infectious disease, and as with most infectious diseases, white blood cells of the innate immune system called neutrophils play a critical role in fighting infections. In fact, humans with neutrophil defects usually lose all their teeth by the time they are 20 due to severe periodontal disease.

"It turns out that IL-17 is really important in regulating neutrophils by causing other cells in the vicinity to recruit these infection fighters to the infection site," Gaffen said.

IL-17 is a cytokine, a protein hormone made by "T helper" cells of the immune system that stimulate immunity. Gaffen noted that until recently, immunologists believed there were only two major types of "T helper" cells -- TH1 and TH2 -- which were believed to be responsible for nearly all immune system activities.

"This paradigm underwent a sea change in 2005 with the discovery of a new type of T cell that produces IL-17, now called TH-17," she said. "We know now that almost all autoimmune diseases, at least in the mouse model, are caused by TH-17 cells. This new information has forced scientists to revise completely how they view their favorite disease. Everyone now has to rethink the causative mechanism."

Gaffen said IL-17 likely would be toxic if given systemically, so it may not be a therapeutic candidate to increase immunity. But inhibitors of IL-17 are considered important targets for drugs to treat autoimmune diseases such as RA and psoriasis.

On the down side, however, this new finding indicates that inhibiting IL-17 too much could put people taking such a drug at risk for opportunistic infections such as periodontal disease and tuberculosis, she noted.

"Developing knowledge about the molecules that contribute to host defense versus pathology is very important for gaining a fundamental understanding of the immune system," Gaffen said, "but also because the consequences of therapies that target these cytokines need to be understood."

Contributing authors, in addition to Gaffen and Yu, were Matthew J. Ruddy, Ph.D., a former graduate student in Gaffen's lab, now at the University of Chicago; Grace C. Wong, Cornelia Sfintescu and Richard Todd Evans, Ph.D., from the UB Department of Oral Biology; Pamela J. Baker, Ph.D., from Bates College, Lewiston, Maine; and Jeffrey B. Smith, M.D., from David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Calif.

The research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health to Gaffen and Baker and by an oral biology training grant to Yu.

The University at Buffalo is a premier research-intensive public university, the largest and most comprehensive campus in the State University of New York. The School of Dental Medicine and School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences are two of five schools that constitute UB's Academic Health Center.
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PostPosted: Fri May 25, 2007 8:44 am    Post subject: MIT researchers probe bones' tiny building blocks Reply with quote

MIT researchers probe bones' tiny building blocks
Team's results could lead to new composites that mimic bones' capacity to 'fail gracefully'
Deborah Halber, News Office Correspondent
May 24, 2007


In work that could lead to more effective diagnoses and treatments of bone diseases using only a pinhead-sized sample of a patient's bone, MIT researchers report a first-of-its-kind analysis of bone's mechanical properties.

The work, reported in the May 21 advance online edition of Nature Materials, sheds new light on how bone absorbs energy.

The researchers' up-close-and-personal look at bone probes its fundamental building block--a corkscrew-shaped protein called collagen embedded with tiny nanoparticles of mineral--at the level of tens of nanometers, or billionths of a meter. A human hair, by comparison, is 80,000 nanometers in diameter.

"If you want to investigate the origins of the strength and toughness of a material, you probe it at smaller and smaller length scales," said co-author Subra Suresh, Ford Professor of Engineering, with appointments in materials science and engineering, biological engineering, mechanical engineering and the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology. "The methodologies used in this research can be employed to assess the quality of bone with extremely high precision by providing new and detailed structural and mechanical information on the nature of its fundamental constituents."

The insights gained from the work could also lead to the creation of new, tougher materials, he said.

The study was led by Christine Ortiz, associate professor of materials science and engineering. "The structure, quality and integrity of bone change dramatically with age and disease, hence understanding the origins of the mechanical properties of this major load-bearing, structural tissue in our body is extremely important from a medical standpoint," Ortiz said.

Using a table-top instrument called a molecular force probe, which uses an extremely small probe tip to poke out a tiny fragment of bone, Ortiz and colleagues mapped the stiffness of bovine shin bone into complex, colorful, two-dimensional contour maps similar to those used by geographers.

The team found that the mechanical properties of bone vary greatly within a single region only two micrometers (thousandths of a meter) wide. Because a variety of disorders tied to disease or aging lead to changes in bone structure, the researchers' discovery of the non-uniformity of bone's mechanical properties at very small length scales could lead to improved diagnoses of diseases. For example, if specific nanoscale patterns of stiffness within bone structure are tied to disease or aging, these could potentially be identified earlier or provide more conclusive evidence of a disorder.

The researchers also formulated a computer model to study the effects of their experimental results on larger-scale biomechanical properties. For example, using the model they found that the non-uniform stiffness patterns were advantageous to bone's ability to absorb energy.

"We tend to think that if a material is non-uniform, it is not as tough," Suresh said. "This work shows otherwise. Our thesis is that nature, by making bones non-uniform at extremely small length scales over the course of millions of years of evolution, has designed bone to be able to absorb much more energy than a uniform material with the same properties."

"I was surprised that we observed such beautiful and complex patterns," Ortiz said. "Cells sense and respond to stresses in their environment. Since different local mechanical properties in bone change the magnitude of stresses around the cell, the cells' behavior can be altered in response, thereby affecting the health of the tissue."

In addition, the team's results could lead to new ways of producing improved structural composites that mimic nature's clever design that allows bones to resist sudden fractures; to "fail gracefully," as Suresh put it. For example, certain kinds of a new class of materials called nanocomposites are composed of a polymer or metallic matrix filled with nanoscale particles randomly distributed or periodically spaced. "There may be ways to disperse particles non-uniformly that may lead to improved material toughness," Suresh said.

Ortiz' and Suresh's colleagues on the work are Kuangshin Tai, a recent MIT Ph.D. graduate; research scientist Ming Dao of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering; and Ahmet Palazoglu of the University of California at Davis.

Ortiz is currently looking at stem-cell-based, tissue-engineered bone in collaboration with Dan Gazit at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem to see how similar it is to native bone. She is also applying the new analysis and related imaging and simulation techniques to different types of mineralized biological materials such as armored scales from ancient fish and seashells.

This work was supported by the Whitaker Foundation, the U.S. Army Research Office, the MIT Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies and the National Institutes of Health.
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PostPosted: Wed May 30, 2007 11:21 am    Post subject: Mineralized bone: A panoramic view Reply with quote

Mineralized bone: A panoramic view
STAR SCIENCE By Antonio R. Villanueva, M.A., Ph.D., MCS (ASCP)
Thursday, May 31, 2007

Mineralized bone is a condition where properties of the bone tissue are still in its natural state. Several of its inorganic and organic properties, including bone cells, are still intact. Bone is a living tissue. It is in constant repair and renewal throughout life, varying in characteristic ways with age, during growth and in the presence of many diseases. This is referred to as bone remodeling. When bone remodels, unknown factors or mysterious phenomena trigger the activation of “mother cells” or osteoprogenitor cells. These cells start to proliferate and divide into specialized cells called osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are “bone destroyers” — multinucleated giant cells, with a destructive lytic enzyme, capable of eroding or boring a hole in the bone. Eroding of bone takes approximately 30 days, after which another type of mononucleated cells called osteoblasts or “bone builders” takes over and starts replacing the bone that the osteoclasts removed. Immediately after the osteoclasts are gone, osteoblasts start laying down unmineralized bone (osteoid) centripetally, and keep doing it until the hole is all filled up. Some osteoblasts become trapped in the bone they formed and become osteocytes. Osteocytes live about 25 years and probably affect blood-bone exchange of mineral ions. Bone remodeling is the sum of the resorptive (osteoclastic) and formative (osteoblastic) activities occurring over time. Normally the length of time to complete the process of one metabolic unit takes approximately 90 to 120 days, depending on the age of the individual, and the presence of various diseases.

Since the middle part of the 16th century when bone technology was still in its infancy, experimenters have turned their intellect to devising methods of studying bone tissue. They encountered some challenge to their ingenuity because bone tissue is hard to cut into thin sections, and it is difficult to do simple chemical and physical tests on it. The problems can be partly resolved either by learning to remove the inorganic elements in the bone before sectioning or by devising simple ways of making fairly thin sections while retaining the minerals in their natural state. The removal of mineral salts by acids or chelating agents has been the classic procedure for many years, whereas the latter is at its beginning stage.

Early investigators would rub or grind bone sections between plates of old ground glass with water and pumice powder, sand or carborundum paper. These early methods for making sections of mineralized bone were tedious and difficult. Consequently, for many years bone has been one of the most neglected tissues in the pathology laboratory, and most pathology laboratories overlooked it entirely.

In recent years, pathologists have become concerned with questions about mineralized bone for diagnostic pathology on the light microscopic level. Initially, examination of bone was conducted mostly by pathologists whose real interest was in the ultrastructure of various cells and tissues. When the mechanisms of plastic embedment and the technical complexities of bone preparation were understood more clearly, several investigators, including some pathologists, became interested in light microscopic examination of this material. When all their observations had been collected, they found they had vast amounts of information of potentially great clinical value, including answers to a variety of important problems like skeletal growth, articular architecture, function, and repair. Now several other areas are ready for exploration: bone remodeling, bone biomechanics, fracture healing, and criteria for diagnosis of bone tumors and metabolic bone diseases.

Notable is the pioneering work of Harold M. Frost, M.D., elucidating the dynamics of bone remodeling. In the early stages of this development, most of the research had been done by internists, orthopaedists, dentists and others from related disciplines, who had little knowledge of mineralized bone pathology. What is really surprising is that then, and even now, only a few pathologists have been truly cognizant of mineralized bone pathology. Today the use of mineralized bone has dramatically increased. It is useful not only in the study and evaluation of metabolic bone diseases, but in space travel studies. A major concern among astronauts is the possible adverse effect of weightlessness on bone remodeling in space. Studies have shown that 25 percent of bone mass is lost after one year in space.

It is now clear that mineralized bone has a place in research, and in diagnostic pathology, particularly in metabolic bone disease. With tissue time markers, particularly tetracycline, we can obtain accurate measurements of rates, quantities, and locations of bone mineralization in relatively simple ways. Because of the geometrical process of making the organic matrix and subsequent calcification, bone has several properties analogous to the architectural and time-based proportion of growth rings in trees. Thus a tetracycline marker can identify where bone formation has occurred and on what particular day. Two sequential markers spaced several days apart can give us the actual amount of bone made within a time interval.

The information gained from these markers is inherently associated with the mineral salts rather than the organic part of bone. Decalcifying the tissue with chelating agents or acids to cut a section more readily wastes all such information. Before quantitative measuring techniques and analytical schemes based on these markers could be developed, it was necessary to find some method of making sections of bone that retain both the mineral and any incorporated marker. Such methods have since been developed and enjoy increasingly wide use as an integral part of the battery of techniques in medical centers and hospitals around the world. The methods have proven extremely useful and informative, particularly in follow-up studies (through serial biopsies) of disease and its treatment. They will permit doctors or scientists to look at the cells and study their properties relating structure, organization, and chemistry in terms of both composition and behavior.

* * *

Dr. Antonio R. Villanueva was the deputy director of research of the Bone and Mineral Division, Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan, and director of research of the Harrington Arthritis Research Center in Phoenix, Arizona. While in both institutions, he was involved in basic research in osteoporosis, bone implant substitutes, and fatigue microfracture studies in the femoral head. He received grants from the National Institute of Health, Henry Ford Foundation, Greenings Foundation and Sandoz Foundation of Gnerontological Research as co-investigator and principal investigator in the study of osteoporosis, bioceramic implants and microfractures. He is the author and co-author of over 150 peer-reviewed publications and chapters in textbooks of Theory and Practice of Histotechnology and Handbook of Bone Morphometry. He discovered three biological dyes called Villanueva Mineralized Bone Stain and Villanueva Osteochrome Bone Stain now used worldwide to evaluate and diagnose certain metabolic bone diseases, and to investigate new bone ingrowth in bioceramics implants. He also developed the Villanueva Blood Stain used to evaluate hematologic elements. Presently, he is editor-in-chief of the Medical Herald, a journal of the Association of Philippine Practicing Physicians of Arizona, and has also been invited to be the Special Edition Editor of the Journal of Histotechnology issue on “Insight in the Management of Neuromuscular Diseases and Histopathological Techniques” to be published in December 2007. Those who are interested in submitting an article on this subject should contact him at avillanueva11@cox.net.
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PostPosted: Thu May 31, 2007 9:38 am    Post subject: Bone's Strength Found in Weird Structure Inside Reply with quote

Bone's Strength Found in Weird Structure Inside
By Melinda Wenner, Special to LiveScience

posted: 31 May 2007 09:25 am ET

Healthy bones have a highly irregular structure, according to a new study that used powerful microscopes to visualize bone structure down to billionths of a meter.

And the uneven structure of bone may actually be a good thing. It may help bone tolerate strains and stresses more easily and allow cells to sense and repair bone damage more quickly. It is also giving scientists ideas for how to develop better armor for soldiers.

Christine Ortiz, a materials scientist at MIT, and her colleagues used a tiny probe to extract a piece of cow shin bone--the structure of which is very similar to human bone-- and studied it using a powerful nanoscale microscope. To their surprise, the internal building blocks of the bone were organized very irregularly--in a way that drastically differed from their smooth surface appearance.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hea.....cture.html
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 27, 2007 9:04 am    Post subject: More than Just Bare Bones: New Research Suggests Emotions Ca Reply with quote

More than Just Bare Bones: New Research Suggests Emotions Can Affect Recovery from Hip Surgery
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
27 June 2007


ST. LOUIS - A patient's emotional state plays a significant role in his or her recovery from hip surgery, suggests Saint Louis University research published this month.

Orthopaedic surgeons typically use two tests to determine if a patient has recovered from hip surgery: one is a clinical measure of hip function given by the doctor, and the second is a questionnaire patients answer that considers a wide variety of factors in determining the overall success of the surgical procedure.

"We started out simply looking to see if the results of the two tests were correlated; the one doctors give has been used for decades to evaluate hip function, and the other that the patient answers is much newer," says Berton Moed, M.D., chair of the department of orthopaedic surgery at Saint Louis University School of Medicine. "What we found was surprising - the clinical test found good-to-excellent results, while the self-test taken by the same patients showed significantly worse recovery."

The disparity, says Moed, can be explained by a section of questions on the self-test not addressed by the clinical test: those dealing with emotional well-being. A patient's emotional status was the second-most important factor in determining how well he or she thought recovery was going, Moed found. (Mobility was the first.)

"Patients come in for check-ups after their hip surgery and the doctor says, 'Looks like you're doing fabulously,' and they respond, 'No, I'm not. I ache,'" Moed says. "They're not doing well, but why? It appears to have a lot to do with their emotional state. It's the elephant in the exam room - that is, something doctors need to acknowledge is a real issue."

Rather than retool the established clinical test to include an emotional component, Moed says orthopaedic surgeons should make efforts to use both exams for a more comprehensive measure of the patient's recovery.

"Do we need to look at other interventions besides fixing their hip? I think we might have to," he says. "That could include bringing in social workers and psychologists to work with the patients in the areas that surgeons, who often are super subspecialists, may not be able to deal with."

Moed says both underlying depression and new depression brought on by the injury and/or surgery could be to blame for slowing a patient's recovery.

"When an active person is suddenly confined to the bed or to limited activity, it can take a toll," Moed says. "Not being able to do the things one used - and feeling powerless over it - may play a larger role than we thought in how well the patient feels they're recovering."

While Moed says some patients may be taken aback by the suggestion that they see a psychologist after surgery, he thinks developing better and more customized treatment plans has the potential to help patients recover more fully - and not just after hip surgery.

"The number one issue is recognition - we need to acknowledge that there's more going on with patients than what current clinical tests tell us," he says.

Moed and fellow researchers studied 46 patients who had been followed for at least two years after elementary posterior wall fracture surgery. The research is published in the June issue of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.



Established in 1836, Saint Louis University School of Medicine has the distinction of awarding the first medical degree west of the Mississippi River. The school educates physicians and biomedical scientists, conducts medical research, and provides health care on a local, national and international level. Research at the school seeks new cures and treatments in five key areas: cancer, liver disease, heart/lung disease, aging and brain disease, and infectious disease.
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PostPosted: Thu Aug 09, 2007 3:32 pm    Post subject: Research shows skeleton to be endocrine organ Reply with quote

Columbia University Medical Center
9 August 2007

Research shows skeleton to be endocrine organ

Finding may implicate bone as therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes

Bones are typically thought of as calcified, inert structures, but researchers at Columbia University Medical Center have now identified a surprising and critically important novel function of the skeleton. They’ve shown for the first time that the skeleton is an endocrine organ that helps control our sugar metabolism and weight and, as such, is a major determinant of the development of type 2 diabetes.

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http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_.....072607.php
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 11, 2007 7:20 am    Post subject: Skeletal Discovery: Bone cells affect metabolism Reply with quote

Week of Aug. 11, 2007; Vol. 172, No. 6 , p. 83

Skeletal Discovery: Bone cells affect metabolism
Patrick Barry

If your blood glucose is out of whack, the problem may be in your bones. New research in mice shows that bone cells exert a surprising influence on how the body regulates sugar, energy, and fat.

For the full article:

http://sciencenews.org/articles/20070811/fob1.asp
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PostPosted: Mon Sep 17, 2007 1:54 pm    Post subject: Bone-Growing Nanomaterial Could Improve Orthopaedic Implants Reply with quote

Biomedical Engineering

Bone-Growing Nanomaterial Could Improve Orthopaedic Implants
Brown University
17 September 2007

Bone-forming cells grow faster and produce more calcium on anodized titanium covered in carbon nanotubes compared with plain anodized titanium and the non-anodized version currently used in orthopaedic implants, new Brown University research shows. The work, published in Nanotechnology, uncovers a new material that can be used to make more successful implants. The research also shows tantalizing promise for an all-new device: a “smart” implant that can sense and report on bone growth.

For the full article:


http://www.brown.edu/Administr.....7-033.html
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PostPosted: Mon Oct 08, 2007 2:55 pm    Post subject: Targeting sugars may revolutionize treatment of bone disorde Reply with quote

Targeting sugars may revolutionize treatment of bone disorders
8 October 2007
Chemistry of Materials

Researchers in the United Kingdom and Germany are reporting that one of the most fundamental scientific beliefs about the structure of human bone is incomplete -- a finding they say could have sweeping impact on treatments for osteoporosis and other bone disorders. Their study, scheduled for the Oct. 16 issue of ACS' Chemistry of Materials, a bi-weekly journal, concludes that sugars, not proteins, are key organic building blocks that account for bone's toughness and stiffness.

The University of Cambridge's David G. Reid and Melinda Duer and Christian Jaeger at and Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing in Berlin, explain that scientists have long held that collagen and other proteins were the main organic molecules responsible for stabilizing normal bone structure. That belief has been the basis for existing medications for bone disorders, and bone replacement materials. At the same time, researchers paid little attention to roles of sugars (carbohydrates) in the complex process of bone growth.

In the new report, researchers describe experiments on mineralization in horse bones using an analysis tool called nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). They found that sugars, particularly proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, appear to play a larger role than proteins in controlling the bone mineralization process and may be a key to maintaining healthy bones.

"This could exert a major impact on the pharmacological management of bone disorders by directing novel therapeutic approaches, as it suggests new molecular targets for drug discovery," the report states. "It also offers new disease biomarkers for diagnosis."

ARTICLE #2 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE "Organic-Mineral Interface in Bone is Predominately Polysaccharide"

DOWNLOAD PDF http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....02054c.pdf
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PostPosted: Mon Oct 15, 2007 10:39 am    Post subject: Toward a better drug for treating muscle, bone loss in elder Reply with quote

Toward a better drug for treating muscle, bone loss in elderly men
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
15 October 2007

The search for alternatives to steroid medications for treating millions of Baby Boomer males with age-related declines in the sex hormone testosterone has led researchers in California to report development of a nonsteroidal compound that shows promise as a new treatment for loss of muscle mass, bone tissue, and other problems linked to low testosterone. Their study will appear in the Oct. 18 issue of the ACS’ Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, a bi-weekly publication.

In the report, Arjan van Oeveren and colleagues point out that the potential side effects of testosterone, a steroid medication, limit its use to older men with low testosterone levels. Testosterone replacement therapy may increase the risk of prostate cancer and stroke, for instance, and cannot be given orally. People take it via skin patches or rub-on gels.

The new study describes a nonsteroidal compound that in lab rats attaches to testosterone receptors in cells and triggers the same desired effects as actual testosterone in tests in laboratory animals. In comparison to other testosterone replacement treatments, the compound showed similar improvement in muscle mass and strength while having little effect on the prostate, the researchers say. It also significantly improved bone density and strength in the lab rats.

ARTICLE #2 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE “Substituted 6-(1-Pyrrolidine) quinolin-2(1H)-ones as Novel Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators”

DOWNLOAD PDF http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....70231h.pdf
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