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(Bio) Algae and Seaweed: The Secret Life Of Algae

 
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adedios
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PostPosted: Sun Jan 15, 2006 9:05 am    Post subject: (Bio) Algae and Seaweed: The Secret Life Of Algae Reply with quote






Source: Biotechnology And Biological Sciences Research Council
Date: 2006-01-14
URL: http://www.sciencedaily.com/re.....152028.htm

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Secret Life Of Algae

A fundamental process that has puzzled researchers for many years has been explained by UK scientists. Some simple plants that are crucial in maintaining the balance of carbon in the Earth’s atmosphere require vitamin B12 to grow properly but it has been a mystery to scientists why some types needed external sources and others did not. Now researchers at the Universities of Cambridge and Kent have discovered that half of all algae have a dependent but beneficial relationship with bacteria that make the vitamin for them.

The researchers, funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), found that no algae have the necessary genes to produce vitamin B12. Those that do not require a supply are like higher plants; they have an alternative metabolic process that does not need the vitamin. However, algae that need vitamin B12 cannot make it themselves and must get it from somewhere else.

The scientists realised that the amount of vitamin B12 required to grow the types of algae that do need the vitamin in the laboratory is much higher than natural levels in the seas and rivers. They discovered that in the natural environment were bacteria that could supply the necessary vitamin B12 the algae needed. However, the relationship between the bacteria and algae was not one-way. The scientists found that the algae supported the bacteria by providing them with carbon from their own photosynthesis.

Dr Alison Smith, one of the research leaders at the University of Cambridge, said, “What these observations demonstrate is that, although algae live by harvesting the sun’s energy through photosynthesis, many of them are like animals in that they need another organism to supply them with a vital nutrient. This has implications for how we consider the ecosystems in the world’s oceans.”

Professor Julia Goodfellow, BBSRC Chief Executive, said, “Algae fix around half of the world’s carbon so it is vital that we can understand what affects their growth and wellbeing. Research into fundamental relationships and microscopic bacteria may not seem important at first but it is only by improving our understanding at this level that we can discover how to maintain the health of ecosystems at a global level.”

*************************************************************

Questions to explore further this topic:

What are algae?

http://www.naturegrid.org.uk/b.....palga.html
http://tolweb.org/accessory/Al.....?acc_id=52
http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/pr...../index.htm
http://scitec.uwichill.edu.bb/.....algae1.htm
http://seaweed.ucg.ie/Algae/Algae.html
http://mbgnet.mobot.org/fresh/lakes/algae.htm
http://www.nmnh.si.edu/botany/.....uction.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algae
http://www.mesa.edu.au/friends.....algae.html

How do we classify algae?

http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/al...../index.htm
http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/pond/algae.html
http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/r.....20page.htm

What are algal cells?

http://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/hcs300/algae.htm


Images of algae

http://vis-pc.plantbio.ohiou.e.....eindex.htm
http://www.algaebase.org/ImageTop10.lasso
http://www.keweenawalgae.mtu.edu/
http://nsgl.gso.uri.edu/bloom.html
http://www.buckman.com/eng/micro101/algae.htm
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/algae1.htm

What are seaweeds?

http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/al...../index.htm
http://www.seaweed.ie/
http://oceanlink.island.net/oi.....weeds.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seaweed

Algae, Seaweeds and the Philippines

http://www.da.gov.ph/agribiz/seaweeds.html
http://www.da.gov.ph/agribiz/c.....weeds.html
http://www.philsol.nl/B99/Shemberg-july99.htm
http://tolweb.org/tree?group=Rhodophyta
http://www.fao.org/docrep/fiel.....072E04.htm
http://tradelinephil.dti.gov.ph/betp/seaweeds

Algae and research at the Ateneo

http://aegis.ateneo.net/acuyegkeng/research.html

Types of Algae

Blue green algae (Cyanobacteria)
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/b.....intro.html

Red algae (Rhodophyta)
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/p.....phyta.html

Green algae (Chlorophyta)
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/g.....algae.html
http://www.microscopy-uk.org.u.....green.html

Golden algae(Chrysophyta)
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/c.....phyta.html

Chromista
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/c.....mista.html

Euglemophyta
http://lifesci.rutgers.edu/~triemer/intro.htm

Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
http://www.seaweed.ie/algae/phaeophyta.html

Bacillariophyta
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/c.....phyta.html

Dinoflagellata
http://www.geo.ucalgary.ca/~ma.....lates.html

What is a lichen?

http://mgd.nacse.org/hyperSQL/.....eting.html
http://www.lichen.com/biology.html

What are harmful algal blooms? (Red Tide)

http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/whathabs/whathabs.html
http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/species/species.html
http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/rtphotos/rtphotos.html
http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/fo.....odweb.html
http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/no.....vents.html
http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/En...../index.htm
http://museum.gov.ns.ca/poison/redtide.htm

What are corraline algae?

http://www.paleoweb.net/algae/

Hawaiaan Algae

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/r.....Hawaii.htm

GAMES

http://www.mbayaq.org/lc/activities.asp
http://www.surfnetkids.com/games/tidepools-sc.htm
http://www.epa.gov/globalwarmi.....index.html
http://users.adelphia.net/~lup.....uizzes.htm
http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=3515


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 3:40 pm; edited 2 times in total
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PostPosted: Tue Apr 18, 2006 1:50 pm    Post subject: DA warns of red tide in Ilocos mussels, oysters Reply with quote

http://news.inq7.net/regions/i.....y_id=72964


DA warns of red tide in Ilocos mussels, oysters
First posted 10:34pm (Mla time) April 19, 2006
By Yolanda Sotelo-Fuertes
Inquirer


LINGAYEN, PANGASINAN—The Department of Agriculture in the Ilocos region has advised against gathering and eating tahong (mussels), talaba (oysters) and other shellfish from Anda and Bolinao towns as these were found positive for red tide poisoning.

DA Regional Director Nestor Domenden, in a letter to Gov. Victor Agbayani, said the results of the analysis of fresh shell meat samples showed that these were contaminated with poisons from red tide organisms.

Agbayani enjoined the mayors of the two towns to inform the public to “refrain from harvesting, gathering, transporting, marketing and eating shellfish from their areas until further notice.”

Domenden said, however, that fish harvested from the same areas are safe for human consumption, provided these are fresh and washed thoroughly and their internal organs, such as gills and intestines, are removed.

Records from the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources showed that mussels gathered in Luciente and Luna villages in Bolinao and Siapar in Anda were positive for red tide poison.

“The local governments of Anda and Bolinao are monitoring the affected areas,” Domenden said.
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PostPosted: Sun Apr 23, 2006 2:24 pm    Post subject: Red tide strikes 2 Pangasinan towns Reply with quote

Red tide strikes 2 Pangasinan towns
Manila Bulletin
24 April 2006

LINGAYEN, Pangasinan (PNA) — The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) has warned that the coastal waters of Bolinao and Anda in Pangasinan are now positive for the deadly red tide toxin.


This was contained in Shellfish Bulletin 07 issued by BFAR Director Malcolm Sarmiento stating among others that there is now a shellfish ban in the coastal waters of Bolinao and Anda.

The shellfish bulletin was relayed by Department of Agriculture Regional Director Nestor Domenden, who said that the red tide organisms can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP).

He warned the public to refrain from harvesting or gathering, transporting, marketing and eating shellfish emanating from both Bolinao and Anda until further notice.

Fishes harvested from the same areas are however safe for human consumption provided that they are fresh and washed thoroughly and their internal organs such as gills and intestines removed before cooking.

Other areas in the country under shellfish ban are the coastal waters in Milagros, Masbate; Honda Bay in Puerto Princesa, Palawan; Dumanquillas Bay in Zamboanga del; Sur; Balite Bai in Mati, Davao Oriental; Juag Lagoon in Matnog, Sorsogon; Irong-irong Bay in Samar; and Lianga Bay in Borobo and Bislig Bay in Surigao delo Sur.

On the other hand, the following areas continue to be free from toxic red tide: the coastal waters of Cavite, Las Pinas, Paranaque; Navotas, Bulacan and Bataan in Manila Bay; coastal water of Bani in Pangasinan; coastal waters of Masinloc and Palauig, Zambales; coastal waters of Mandaon, Masbate; Sorsogon Bay in Sorsogon City and Casiguran province;

Malampaya in Taytay, Palawan; coastal waters of Bacolod City, Victorias City, Silay City; Valladolid, San Enrique, E.B. Magalona, Ponteverda, Cadiz City, Talisay City and Hinigaran in Negros Occidental; Biliran waters in Biliran province; Cancabato Bay in Tacloban City; Carigara and Ormoc Bays in Leyte; Maqueda and Villareal Bays in Samar; Taguines Lagoon in Camiguin Island.

In his Shellfish Bulletin, Director Sarmiento stated that "acetes sp." or "alamang" from red tide affected areas are not safe for human consumption.

Whereas, fish, squids, shrimps and crabs are safe for consumption provided that they are fresh and washed thoroughly and their internal organs such as gills and intestines removed before cooking.
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PostPosted: Mon Apr 02, 2007 8:11 pm    Post subject: Odd Global Warming Threat: Toxic Seafood Reply with quote

Odd Global Warming Threat: Toxic Seafood

By Michael Casey
Associated Press
posted: 02 April 2007
10:15 am ET

ILOILO, Philippines (AP) — Bowls of piping hot barracuda soup were the much-anticipated treat when the Roa family gathered for a casual and relaxing Sunday meal.

Within hours, all six fell deathly ill. So did two dozen others from the same neighborhood. Some complained of body-wide numbness. Others had weakness in their legs. Several couldn't speak or even open their mouths.

“I was scared. I really thought I was going to die,'' said Dabby Roa, 21, a student who suffered numbness in his head, tingling in his hands and had trouble breathing.

What Roa and the others suffered that night last August was ciguatera poisoning, a rarely fatal but growing menace from eating exotic fish. All had bought portions of the same barracuda from a local vendor.

Experts estimate that up to 50,000 people worldwide suffer ciguatera poisoning each year, with more than 90 percent of cases unreported. Scientists say the risks are getting worse, because of damage that pollution and global warming are inflicting on the coral reefs where many fish species feed.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....afood.html
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 11, 2007 8:17 am    Post subject: Piecing together the cyanobacteria puzzle Reply with quote

DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
11 July 2007

Piecing together the cyanobacteria puzzle

LIVERMORE, Calif. -- Blue green algae are significant species in the global carbon cycle because they transform nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into a useable nutrient, enabling photosynthesis in nutrient-poor waters.

Using NanoSIMS (high- resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USC and Portland State University scientists showed that they could image and track nutrient uptake in blue green algae at the nanoscale. The new method should help to clear up the age-old puzzle of how different species of blue green algae can “fix” or take up atmospheric nitrogen and carbon in a single cell organism. Carbon fixation during photosynthesis produces oxygen, which inhibits nitrogen fixation.

Different species of blue green algae solve the problem in different ways and scientists still don’t understand how some of the most important species can get both of these jobs done.

To develop the new method, the researchers studied the freshwater algae, Anabaena oscillarioides, which separates the two processes into adjacent cells that share the products. LLNL researchers Peter Weber, Jennifer Pett-Ridge, Stewart Fallon and Ian Hutcheon used NanoSIMS to track the uptake and movement of carbon and nitrogen inside two types of cells in the algae: vegetative cells, which perform carbon fixation, and heterocysts, thick-walled relatives that pull in nitrogen.

NanoSIMS provides the ability to map distributions of elements and isotopes with 50-100-nanometer resolution. The device allowed the scientists to measure the carbon and nitrogen uptake and subsequent distribution at the cellular and subcellular level.

“The method shows the dynamics of resource uptake and redistribution down to the level of sub-micron nitrogen storage and cell wall formation during cell division,” Weber said.

The researchers used stable isotope tracers in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases to track nitrogen and carbon fixation. After a few hours of incubation, vegetative cells exhibited a large enrichment in carbon and nitrogen isotopes because of active carbon and nitrogen uptake and intercellular exchange. During photosynthesis, most of the newly fixed carbon was allocated to vegetative cells because they are rapidly dividing, while heterocysts require very little carbon because they are non-growing cells.

The NanoSIMS images showed that mature heterocysts are distinguishable from the vegetative cells based on their size, shape and intercellular distance.

The method also showed that newly fixed nitrogen levels are higher in vegetative cells than in mature heterocysts.

“We were able to see on a cell by cell basis how newly fixed nitrogen is rapidly exported from the heterocysts to vegetative cells, keeping pace with the nitrogen demands of the growing and dividing vegetative cells,” Weber said. “Now we can take these results and apply them to poorly understood species.”

USC’s Kenneth Nealson predicts that NanoSIMS opens up a whole new field of study.

“You can use this technology to look at things going on inside the cell,” he said. “This is going to change the way that we do a lot of microbiology.”

The research appears in the latest issue of The International Society for Microbial Ecology (ISME) Journal.

###
Founded in 1952, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a mission to ensure national security and to apply science and technology to the important issues of our time. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is managed by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration.

Laboratory news releases and photos are also available at http://www.llnl.gov/PAO and on UC Newswire.
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PostPosted: Sat Nov 24, 2007 7:26 am    Post subject: Newfound Sea Anemones Really Get Around Reply with quote

Newfound Sea Anemones Really Get Around
By Ker Than, LiveScience Staff Writer

posted: 23 November 2007 08:45 am ET

Sea anemones normally anchor themselves to the seafloor. But new species found lurking in the waters surrounding the windswept Aleutian Islands near Alaska swim and walk across the sea floor.

Scientists discovered the anemones, which could represent two species, as well as a new species of kelp as part of a two-year scientific survey of the waters around the Aleutians.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/ani.....mones.html
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