PAETE.ORG FORUMS
Paetenians Home on the Net

HOME | ABOUT PAETE | USAP PAETE MUNISIPYO  | MEMBERS ONLY  | PICTORIAL PAETE | SINING PAETE  | LINKS  |

FORUM GUIDELINES
please read before posting

USAP PAETE Forum Index USAP PAETE
Discussion Forums for the people of Paete, Laguna, Philippines
 
 FAQFAQ   SearchSearch    UsergroupsUsergroups   RegisterRegister 
 ProfileProfile   Log in to check your private messagesLog in to check your private messages   Log inLog in 

(Bio) Amphibia: More Frogs Dying as Planet Warms

 
Post new topic   Reply to topic   printer-friendly view    USAP PAETE Forum Index -> Science Lessons Forum
View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu Jan 12, 2006 12:48 pm    Post subject: (Bio) Amphibia: More Frogs Dying as Planet Warms Reply with quote






More Frogs Dying as Planet Warms
By Bjorn Carey
LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 12 January 2006
09:01 am ET

Global warming is now believed to have set off a chain reaction wiping out entire frog populations and could possibly drive many species to extinction, a new study suggests.

Using records of sea-surface and air temperatures, researchers determined that harlequin frogs are disappearing nearly in step with the warming climate. At least 110 species of brightly colored harlequin frogs once lived near streams in the Central and South America tropics. Nearly two-thirds vanished in the 1980’s and 1990’s.

According to researchers, the Earth’s rising temperatures increase cloud cover on tropical mountains, leading to cooler days and warmer nights. This creates the perfect growing conditions for chytrid fungus—a skin fungus that causes deadly infections in amphibians.

“Disease is the bullet that’s killed the frogs,” said study leader J. Alan Pounds of the Tropical Science Center’s Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve in Costa Rica. “But climate change is pulling the trigger. Global warming is wreaking havoc on amphibians, and soon will cause staggering losses of biodiversity.”

The fungus kills frogs mostly in cool highlands or during winter, which had scientists thinking that low temperatures made it more fatal. However, this evidence shows it grows optimally between 63 and 77 degrees Fahrenheit, suggesting that it flourishes in warm years as well.

In 2004 the Global Amphibian Assessment reported that nearly one-third of the world’s 6,000 species of frogs, toads, and salamanders face extinction.

But it’s not just bad news for frogs, said Sam Scheiner of the National Science Foundation’s ecology of infectious diseases program. As global warming and the emergence of infectious diseases continue, the two will pose an immediate threat to biodiversity and a growing challenge for humans.

“The good news, if there is any, is the new findings will open up avenues of research that could provide scientists with the means to save the amphibians that still survive,” study participant Bruce Young of NatureServe said. “If this cloud has any silver lining, that’s it.”

This research is detailed in the Jan. 12 issue of the journal Nature.

*************************************************************

Questions to explore further this topic:

What are amphibians?

http://www.enchantedlearning.c.....ians.shtml
http://yahooligans.yahoo.com/c.....mphibians/
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/v.....intro.html
http://www.stlzoo.org/animals/.....mphibians/

What is the difference between an amphibian and a reptile?

http://bogglesworld.com/esl_sc.....ibians.htm
http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org.....2_text.htm
http://www.uwgb.edu/biodiversity/biota/herps/
http://www.hometrainingtools.c.....etter.html

What are the species under the class Amphibia?

http://research.amnh.org/herpe...../index.php

Why are amphibian populations declining?

http://amphibiaweb.org/declines/declines.html

Amphibian Images

http://www.herp-pix.org/amphindex.htm

What are frogs?

http://www.exploratorium.edu/f.....index.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/...../frogs.htm
http://www.kiddyhouse.com/Themes/frogs/

What is the difference between a frog and a toad?

http://www.fi.edu/fellows/fellow9/jun99/toad.html
http://www.fi.edu/fellows/fell.....ewer.shtml
http://www.kiddyhouse.com/Them.....ddiff.html
http://www.amonline.net.au/exp....._toads.htm
http://allaboutfrogs.org/weird.....gtoad.html

Images of Frogs

http://www.thefrog.org/fun/photos/index.htm

Movies about Frogs

http://www.midwestfrogs.com/
http://www.thefrog.org/movies/index.htm
http://cars.er.usgs.gov/Educat.....ology.html
http://www.hfml.ru.nl/pics/Movies/frog.mpg

What is a fungus?

http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Ex.....m/English/
http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/funguskingdom.html

Frog and Fungus

http://www.abc.net.au/rn/scien.....s37770.htm
http://www.sciencenews.org/pag.....8/fob9.htm

GAMES

http://www.thefrog.org/fun/flash/index.htm
http://www.thefrog.org/javaword/jigsaword1.htm
http://allaboutfrogs.org/funstuff/frogtest.php3
http://allaboutfrogs.org/funstuff/java/index.html
http://www.hungryfrog.com/shock.html
http://www.abc.net.au/countusin/games/game11.htm
http://www.funtrivia.com/quizz.....bians.html


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 3:52 pm; edited 2 times in total
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu Feb 16, 2006 10:57 am    Post subject: Darwin's nightmare: Toxic toad evolves to secure supremacy Reply with quote

Darwin's nightmare: Toxic toad evolves to secure supremacy
Agence France Presse
Wed Feb 15, 2:13 PM ET

He's fat, ugly and poisonous -- and he's mutating. He's the cane toad (Bufo marinus), a species which was introduced into the Australian state of Queensland 70 years ago to tackle insect pests in canefields and has since become an ecological catastrophe.

Weighing in at to up two kilos (4.4 pounds), the unwanted anuran has extended its range to more than a million square kilometers (386,000 square miles) in tropical and sub-tropical Australia, crushing native species in its relentless advance.

A team of University of Sydney toad watchers positioned themselves on the front line of the invasion, 60 kilometers (35 miles) east of the city of Darwin, and for 10 months caught toads, some of which they radiotagged and let loose again.

They were astonished to find that the creatures can hop up to 1.8 kms (1.1 miles) a night during wet weather, a record for any frog or toad.

But even more remarkable was the discovery that the first toads to arrive at the front invariably had longer hind legs than those which arrived later.

By comparison, the toads which are living in the long-established Queensland colonies have much shorter legs.

The case is being seen as a classic example of Darwinian evolution -- animals that are stronger, faster or smarter are able to stake out new territory and defend it against those that are weaker, slower or less astute.

The findings also neatly explain a puzzle surrounding the cane toad.

From the 1940s to 1960s, the critter expanded its range by only 10 kms (six miles) a year. Today, though, it is advancing at the rate of more than 50 kms (30 miles) annually.

The reason: with longer legs, the mutating species is able to travel further, faster.

The authors, led by Richard Shine of the university's School of Biological Sciences, say the cane toad is a chilling lesson for governments to combat invasive species as soon as possible, "before the invader has had time to evolve into a more dangerous adversary."

The paper appears on Thursday in Nature, the weekly science journal.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Sun Apr 23, 2006 2:45 pm    Post subject: Laos – a lost world for frogs Reply with quote

Wildlife Conservation Society
21 April 2006


Laos – a lost world for frogs

Latest study documents sixth species found in two-year period
NEW YORK (APRIL 20, 2006) – Frogs and lots of them are being discovered in the Southeast Asia nation of Lao PDR, according to the Bronx Zoo-based Wildlife Conservation Society, which says that six new frog species have been found by scientists over a two-year period.
Working in conjunction with the WCS Laos Program, scientists describe the latest three species in the recent issue of Copeia, the journal of the American Society of Herpetologists and Ichthyologists. Little is known about the new frogs, other than where they live and how they differ morphologically from other similar species.

"Now that these species have been documented we can go back and start to learn something about their biology," said Bryan Stuart of the Field Museum, a co-author of the study.

The American Museum of Natural History and Russian Academy of Sciences also collaborated on the new study.

Lao PDR, the least densely populated country in Asia, has produced a treasure trove of wildlife discoveries in recent years, from the Laotian rock rat, which is the lone living member of an ancient mammal family, to the Annamite striped rabbit and saola, a type of forest antelope. Nine amphibians have been discovered by Stuart and his collaborators since 2002.

"Certainly much more remains to be found in Laos," said Stuart.

With a high level of biodiversity, Lao PDR has some of the most significant forest areas remaining in Southeast Asia. However, the combined loss of forest cover (estimated at nearly 55 percent) and over-exploitation of many species threatens much of Laos's wildlife.

Already, a newly described salamander species found by Stuart in Laos has turned up earlier this year in the Japanese pet trade, where it is commanding a high commercial price. This species is currently known only from two, nearby localities in northern Laos. Conservationists are eager to begin surveys of this species to document the extent of its range and habitat requirements, in order to get it protected by the Lao government before it becomes threatened by overexploitation.

Latest study documents sixth species found in two-year period
NEW YORK (APRIL 20, 2006) – Frogs and lots of them are being discovered in the Southeast Asia nation of Lao PDR, according to the Bronx Zoo-based Wildlife Conservation Society, which says that six new frog species have been found by scientists over a two-year period.
Working in conjunction with the WCS Laos Program, scientists describe the latest three species in the recent issue of Copeia, the journal of the American Society of Herpetologists and Ichthyologists. Little is known about the new frogs, other than where they live and how they differ morphologically from other similar species.

"Now that these species have been documented we can go back and start to learn something about their biology," said Bryan Stuart of the Field Museum, a co-author of the study.

The American Museum of Natural History and Russian Academy of Sciences also collaborated on the new study.

Lao PDR, the least densely populated country in Asia, has produced a treasure trove of wildlife discoveries in recent years, from the Laotian rock rat, which is the lone living member of an ancient mammal family, to the Annamite striped rabbit and saola, a type of forest antelope. Nine amphibians have been discovered by Stuart and his collaborators since 2002.

"Certainly much more remains to be found in Laos," said Stuart.

With a high level of biodiversity, Lao PDR has some of the most significant forest areas remaining in Southeast Asia. However, the combined loss of forest cover (estimated at nearly 55 percent) and over-exploitation of many species threatens much of Laos's wildlife.

Already, a newly described salamander species found by Stuart in Laos has turned up earlier this year in the Japanese pet trade, where it is commanding a high commercial price. This species is currently known only from two, nearby localities in northern Laos. Conservationists are eager to begin surveys of this species to document the extent of its range and habitat requirements, in order to get it protected by the Lao government before it becomes threatened by overexploitation.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Sun May 28, 2006 12:23 pm    Post subject: AmphibiaWeb Reply with quote

Week of May 27, 2006; Vol. 169, No. 21
ScienceNews Online
AmphibiaWeb

Curious about frogs, toads, or salamanders? This Web site from the University of California, Berkeley provides data on more than 6,000 amphibian species from around the world. Visitors can browse the listings by name or region of the world (or country). The site also has general information about amphibians and addresses the issue of amphibian population declines.

Go to: http://amphibiaweb.org/
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Sun Feb 18, 2007 8:35 am    Post subject: Tiny Frog in Amber Might Be 25 Million Years Old Reply with quote

Tiny Frog in Amber Might Be 25 Million Years Old


Associated Press
posted: 17 February 2007
09:45 am ET



MEXICO CITY (AP) -- A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frog that has been preserved in amber for 25 million years, a researcher said. If authenticated, the preserved frog would be the first of its kind found in Mexico, according to David Grimaldi, a biologist and curator at the American Museum of Natural History, who was not involved in the find.

The chunk of amber containing the frog, less than half an inch long, was uncovered by a miner in Mexico's southern Chiapas state in 2005 and was bought by a private collector, who lent it to scientists for study.

A few other preserved frogs have been found in chunks of amber -- a stone formed by ancient tree sap -- mostly in the Dominican Republic. Like those, the frog found in Chiapas appears to be of the genus Craugastor, whose descendants still inhabit the region, said biologist Gerardo Carbot of the Chiapas Natural History and Ecology Institute. Carbot announced the discovery this week.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/ani....._frog.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Apr 09, 2007 5:52 pm    Post subject: Tree Frogs Use Geometry to Hang On Reply with quote

Tree Frogs Use Geometry to Hang On

By Sara Goudarzi
LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 09 April 2007
09:07 am ET

The ability to stick to smooth objects and detach when needed is a perpetual game of geometry for tree frogs, which repeatedly adjust the angle of their toes with respect to the surface.

White’s tree frogs—originating in Australia and Indonesia and capable of growing to almost 5 inches—maintain their grip on surfaces by keeping the angles of their toe pads below 90 degrees, according to a new study presented earlier this month at the annual meeting of the Society for Experimental Biology in Glasgow, Scotland.

“The toe pads of tree frogs are coated with thin mucus which adheres to surfaces by wet adhesion, like wet tissue paper sticking to glass,” said study leader Jon Barnes of the University of Glasgow. Rather than a mechanical force, such as air suction, adhesion relies on the attraction between molecules of its toe pads and those along the walking surface.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/ani.....esion.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue Apr 17, 2007 7:41 am    Post subject: Warming Kicks Frogs While They're Down Reply with quote

Warming Kicks Frogs While They're Down

By Andrea Thompson
LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 16 April 2007
05:16 pm ET

As if frogs and other amphibians around the world didn’t have enough to worry about with a killer fungus spreading rapidly and humans encroaching on their habitats, now global warming seems to be affecting one of the few pristine habitats the frogs have left, a new study suggests.

More than one third of amphibian species in the world today are threatened, and it is estimated that more than 120 species have disappeared since 1980.

A lack of long-term data on frog populations has made it difficult to determine the causes of these declines, especially in areas far from the effects of humans.

Scientists know a pathogen called a chytrid fungus is causing an infection in the skin of frogs in epidemic proportions in cool, high-altitude areas, preventing their skin from taking in enough water and causing them to die of dehydration.

But the fungus fails to explain all of the decline in frog numbers in warmer, low-altitude environments where it cannot thrive as well, so a group of scientists decided to investigate at La Selva Biological Station, a pristine lowland forest in Costa Rica.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/env.....lines.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Sat Apr 21, 2007 6:57 am    Post subject: Cacophony Acoustics Reply with quote

Cacophony Acoustics
Emily Sohn
April 25, 2007

You're in the middle of a bustling school lunchroom. Some girls are yelling behind you. Right beside you, a boy is singing along with his iPod. Other kids are playing a rowdy game in the corner. Meanwhile, you are trying to talk to your friend across the table.
How can you single out one voice amid a sea of noise? You could call this "the loud lunchroom problem."

Scientists have a different name for it. They call it "the cocktail party problem." (After all, adults have the same problem hearing someone talk at a loud party as you do in a noisy lunchroom.)

For the full article:

http://www.sciencenewsforkids......ature1.asp
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue May 01, 2007 8:05 am    Post subject: Amphibians in losing race with environmental change Reply with quote

Oregon State University
1 May 2007

Amphibians in losing race with environmental change

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Even though they had the ability to evolve and survive for hundreds of millions of years - since before the time of the dinosaurs and through many climatic regimes - the massive, worldwide decline of amphibians can best be understood by their inability to keep pace with the current rate of global change, a new study suggests.

The basic constraints of evolution and the inability of species to adapt quickly enough can explain most of the causes that are leading one species after another of amphibians into decline or outright extinction, say researchers from Oregon State University, in a study published today in the journal BioScience.

"We know that there are various causes for amphibian population declines, including UV-B light exposure, habitat loss, pesticide pollution, infections and other issues," said Andrew Blaustein, a professor of zoology at OSU and one of the world's leading experts on amphibian decline.

"But looked at in a different way, it's not just that there are threats and pressures amphibians have to deal with," Blaustein said. "There have always been threats, and these have been some of the most adaptive and successful vertebrate animals on Earth. They were around before the dinosaurs, have lived in periods with very different climates, and continued to thrive while many other species went extinct. But right now, they just can't keep up."

It has been estimated that the rate of plant and animal extinction is greater now than any known in the last 100,000 years, the researchers note in their report. Amphibians are of particular interest because their physiology and complex life cycle often exposes them to a wider range of environmental changes than other species must face – they have permeable skin, live on both land and water, their eggs have no shells.

In the face of these challenges, amphibians appear to be losing the battle – of 5,743 known species of amphibians on Earth, 43 percent are in decline, 32 percent are threatened and 168 species are believed extinct. The impacts of changes are far more pervasive on amphibians than many other vertebrates, such as birds or mammals.

"Historically, amphibians were adept at evolving to deal with new conditions," Blaustein said. "What they are doing is showing us just how rapid and unprecedented are the environmental changes under way. Many other species will also be unable to evolve fast enough to deal with these changes. Because of their unique characteristics, the amphibians are just the first to go."

In their analysis, the OSU scientists point out that evolution is not a precise or perfect process - it takes time, is constrained by historic changes and compromises, and does not always allow a species to adapt in a way that meets rapidly changing conditions. Through genetic variation and natural selection pressures, some species or populations will be able to adapt – while others fail and go extinct.

The systems developed over millions of years to give amphibians survival advantages have now turned against them, scientists say. Examples include:


Many amphibians lay their eggs in shallow, open water in direct sunlight to provide a more oxygenated environment, increase growth rate of larvae and reduce predation. But the increased levels of UV-B radiation in today's sunlight, due to erosion of the Earth's ozone layer, is causing mutations, impaired immune systems and slower growth rates. Through evolution, amphibians were able to adapt to changing UV-B levels in the past, but the current change has occurred too rapidly.


In the past, water was reasonably pure and clean. But increased "eutrophication" of freshwater ponds due to use of modern fertilizers and waste from grazing animals has led to higher rates of parasite infections, and chemical contamination of aquatic systems is also more common.


Many animal species lay their eggs communally or congregate socially, often to avoid predation or improve resource use. But global warming has caused higher levels of certain infectious diseases of some amphibians, and it spreads more easily in closely connected communities.

"Although relatively rapid evolution may occur within some amphibian populations when a novel threat arises, other threats may be too intense and too new for amphibians to cope with them," the researchers wrote in their report. "Behaviors and ecological attributes that have probably persisted, and were probably beneficial, for millions of years . . . under today's conditions may subject amphibians to a variety of damaging agents."

Natural selection and species adaptation may, in time, allow amphibians to react to and recover from the new environmental insults, Blaustein said, if they don't go extinct first.

But evolution is an erratic, often slow and imperfect system, and the complexities of amphibian life cycles makes them more immediately vulnerable than many other species, the researchers said.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue Jun 05, 2007 1:04 pm    Post subject: Ancient Frogs Rafted to the Caribbean Reply with quote

Ancient Frogs Rafted to the Caribbean
By Melinda Wenner, Special to LiveScience

posted: 04 June 2007 05:04 pm ET

Caribbean and Central American frogs have their ancestors to thank for their relaxing and picturesque habitats, according to a new study.

DNA evidence suggests that at least 29 million years ago, South American frogs hopped on some sort of natural rafts and drifted until reaching either Central America or the Caribbean islands, where they gave rise to new frog populations.

Very little has been understood about the evolutionary history of tiny frogs nicknamed “Eleuths” (named after their genus, Eleutherodactylines), which can be as tiny as two centimeters long and make up almost a third of all frogs living in South America, Central America and the Caribbean.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/ani.....frogs.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue Jun 26, 2007 10:55 am    Post subject: Frog molecule could provide drug treatment for brain tumours Reply with quote

Frog molecule could provide drug treatment for brain tumours
26 June 2007
University of Bath

A synthetic version of a molecule found in the egg cells of the Northern Leopard frog (Rana pipiens) could provide the world with the first drug treatment for brain tumours.

Known as Amphinase, the molecule recognises the sugary coating found on a tumour cell and binds to its surface before invading the cell and inactivating the RNA it contains, causing the tumour to die.

In new research published in the Journal of Molecular Biology, scientists from the University of Bath (UK) and Alfacell Corporation (USA) describe the first complete analysis of the structural and chemical properties of the molecule.

Although it could potentially be used as a treatment for many forms of cancer, Amphinase offers greatest hope in the treatment of brain tumours, for which complex surgery and chemotherapy are the only current treatments.

“This is a very exciting molecule,” said Professor Ravi Acharya, from the Department of Biology & Biochemistry at the University of Bath.

“It is rather like Mother Nature’s very own magic bullet for recognising and destroying cancer cells.

“It is highly specific at hunting and destroying tumour cells, is easily synthesised in the laboratory and offers great hope as a therapeutic treatment of the future.”

Amphinase is a version of a ribonuclease enzyme that has been isolated from the oocytes (egg cells) of the Northern Leopard frog.

Ribonucleases are a common type of enzyme found in all organisms. They are responsible for tidying up free-floating strands of RNA cells by latching on to the molecule and cutting it into smaller sections.

In areas of the cell where the RNA is needed for essential functions, ribonucleases are prevented from working by inhibitor molecules. But because Amphinase is an amphibian ribonuclease, it can evade the mammalian inhibitor molecules to attack the cancer cells.

As a treatment, it is most likely to be injected into the area where it is needed. It will have no effect on other cells because it is only capable of recognising and binding to the sugar coating of tumour cells.

“Amphinase is in the very early stages of development, so it is likely to be several years and many trials before it could be developed into a treatment for patients,” said Professor Acharya and his colleagues Drs Umesh Singh and Daniel Holloway.

“Having said that, the early data is promising and through this study we have provided the kind of information needed if approval for use is requested in the future.”

Amphinase is the second anti-tumour ribonuclease to be isolated by Alfacell Corporation from Rana pipiens oocytes.

The other, ONCONASE(R) (ranpirnase), is currently in late-stage clinical trials as a treatment for unresectable malignant mesothelioma, a rare and fatal form of lung cancer, and in Phase I/II clinical trials in non-small cell lung cancer and other solid tumours.

“We are pleased with the superb work performed by Professor Acharya and his talented team at the University of Bath,” commented Kuslima Shogen, Alfacell’s chairman and chief executive officer.

“Their work is critical to the continued development and understanding of our family of novel ribonuclease based therapeutics with the potential to help patients suffering from cancer and other dismal diseases.”

The company is now working on pre-clinical trials of Amphinase with a view to beginning clinical trials in the future.



The University of Bath is one of the UK's leading universities, with an international reputation for quality research and teaching. In 16 subject areas the University of Bath is rated in the top ten in the country. View a full list of the University's press releases: http://www.bath.ac.uk/news/releases
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue Aug 07, 2007 9:36 am    Post subject: Fungus Sex Is Threat to Frogs Reply with quote

Fungus Sex Is Threat to Frogs
By Andrea Thompson, LiveScience Staff Writer

posted: 06 August 2007 05:00 pm ET

A fungus that is wiping out frogs and other amphibians all over the world can probably reproduce sexually, a new study finds, which could make it even deadlier to frogs by allowing it to travel longer distances and hang around longer in the environment.

The pathogen, called a chytrid fungus, has decimated frog populations on every continent (except Antarctica where no frogs live), even in protected highland rainforests in Central America.

Though scientists have been following the spread of the fungus, they know little about exactly how it kills off the frogs (though it is thought to clog their skin, essentially suffocating them) and how it has spread to places as distant from one another as Australia and the United States.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/ani.....ungus.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue Aug 28, 2007 1:36 pm    Post subject: Poisonous 'Golden Frog' Discovered Reply with quote

Poisonous 'Golden Frog' Discovered
By LiveScience Staff

posted: 28 August 2007 10:42 am ET

A new poisonous frog has been discovered by scientists in a remote mountainous region of Colombia.

The new frog, which measures almost 0.8 inches (2 centimeters) in length and has yellowish skin, was named the "golden frog of Supatá."

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/ani....._frog.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Sat Sep 29, 2007 8:08 am    Post subject: Gymnophiona.org Reply with quote

Gymnophiona.org

The Gymnophiona are an order of limbless, worm-like amphibians known as caecilians (si-'sil-yens). Caecilians typically are blind or nearly so and possess sensory tentacles between the eyes and nostrils. Most are fossorial, though a few are aquatic or semi-aquatic. Along with deep sea fishes, they are some of the least studied and least understood vertebrates on the planet. Nevertheless, significant strides are now being made in our understanding of their ecology and natural history.

About Gymnophiona.org

Gymnophiona.org was founded for the purposes of providing accurate information on caecilians and creating an online community of caecilian enthusiasts. The information and services provided here will always be free. We are strictly non-profit, and you will never see advertisements on any pages.

The website:

http://www.gymnophiona.org/
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Oct 15, 2007 10:55 am    Post subject: A Dangerous Meal Reply with quote

A Dangerous Meal
Jennifer Cutraro

Oct. 17, 2007

It's impolite to spit out the first bite of your dinner. But to a type of Australian snake, this rude behavior is a matter of life and death.
The snake, called a floodplain death adder, eats two types of frogs that are hard to stomach. The frogs produce chemicals meant to defend them from predators.

For the full article:

http://www.sciencenewsforkids....../Note2.asp
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu Oct 25, 2007 2:23 pm    Post subject: Frog study takes leaf out of nature's book Reply with quote

Frog study takes leaf out of nature's book
25 Oct 2007
University of Manchester

A brightly coloured tropical frog under threat of extinction is the focus of a new research project hoping to better understand how environment and diet influence its development and behaviour.

Biologists from The University of Manchester have teamed up with experts at Chester Zoo in the hope that their findings will not only help save the splendid leaf frog Cruziohyla calcarifer from extinction in the wild but provide clues as to how it can be better catered for in zoos and aquariums.

Loss of habitat in its native Costa Rican rainforest, combined with global declines in amphibian populations generally through a combination of environmental change and disease, have all contributed to the splendid leaf frog's precarious situation.

"This research aims to contribute to our understanding of the basic factors that influence the development and survival of these frogs," said Dr Richard Preziosi, a lecturer in the University's Faculty of Life Sciences, who is supervising the project.

"For instance, with the exception of certain mammals, we know surprisingly little about what animals should be eating. And yet the diet of splendid leaf frogs affects their colouration which, in turn, determines their mating behaviour.

"The global decline in amphibian populations means research such as this, carried out ex situ, is therefore critical for both conservation projects in the wild and for maintaining and successfully breeding the frogs in zoos and aquariums."

The research at Chester Zoo is being complemented by field studies being conducted by Dr Preziosi and Manchester Museum's Curator of Herpetology, Andrew Gray, in the Costa Rican jungle.

"The combination of our fieldwork and the project at Chester Zoo will provide us with a much better idea of the nutritional requirements of this species," said Dr Preziosi.

"In the wild these animals live in the tree canopy of the rainforest and are exposed to sunlight for long periods of time, so this study will also examine the effect that ultraviolet rays have on the fitness and viability of captive-bred frogs."

Nearly a third of the world's 6,000 amphibian species are threatened with extinction and more than 120 species have already vanished from the planet.

Across the globe, conservation organisations and professionals are mobilising efforts to help save as many of these species as possible.

As part of the response, a new organisation known as the Amphibian Ark (AArk) has been set up to help other conservation organisations assist in the effort.

Kevin Buley, Head of Zoo Programmes at Chester, said: "This study will help benefit the conservation breeding of amphibians in European zoos and aquariums.

"As such, it will also help to save many critically endangered species from extinction as part of the global amphibian ark initiative."


Ends

Notes for editors:

The Chester Zoo study is the three-year research project of University of Manchester PhD student Victoria Ogilvy. The work is being funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

Chester Zoo currently has eight splendid leaf frogs which were donated by Manchester Museum. The initial plan is to introduce unrelated blood lines in order to establish a viable captive population.

The major disease affecting global amphibian populations is caused by the Chytrid fungus which attacks the harder, keratin-rich areas of the animals' skin, predominantly its feet, before spreading through the rest of its body, almost always with fatal consequences.

Hi-resolution image of the Splendid Leaf Frog is available on request.

For more news from the University's Faculty of Life Sciences visit: http://www.ls.manchester.ac.uk...../articles/
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Apr 14, 2008 2:23 pm    Post subject: Web Extra: First Frog without Lungs Reply with quote

Week of April 12, 2008; Vol. 173, No. 15

Web Extra: First Frog without Lungs
Susan Milius

Looks like a frog. Swims like a frog. But doesn't croak. A flattened, brown, aquatic species from Borneo has just become the only frog shown to have no lungs.

For the full article:

http://sciencenews.org/articles/20080412/fob7.asp
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
Display posts from previous:   
Post new topic   Reply to topic   printer-friendly view    USAP PAETE Forum Index -> Science Lessons Forum All times are GMT - 5 Hours
Page 1 of 1

 
Jump to:  
You can post new topics in this forum
You can reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2005 phpBB Group