PAETE.ORG FORUMS
Paetenians Home on the Net

HOME | ABOUT PAETE | USAP PAETE MUNISIPYO  | MEMBERS ONLY  | PICTORIAL PAETE | SINING PAETE  | LINKS  |

FORUM GUIDELINES
please read before posting

USAP PAETE Forum Index USAP PAETE
Discussion Forums for the people of Paete, Laguna, Philippines
 
 FAQFAQ   SearchSearch    UsergroupsUsergroups   RegisterRegister 
 ProfileProfile   Log in to check your private messagesLog in to check your private messages   Log inLog in 

(Anatomy) Hormones: Growth Hormone is Made in the Brain

 
Post new topic   Reply to topic   printer-friendly view    USAP PAETE Forum Index -> Science Lessons Forum
View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue Mar 28, 2006 8:34 am    Post subject: (Anatomy) Hormones: Growth Hormone is Made in the Brain Reply with quote






University of California - Santa Barbara
27 March 2006

Growth hormone is made in the brain, report scientists

(Santa Barbara, Calif.) –– Scientists have found that growth hormone, a substance that is used for body growth, is produced in the brain, according to an article published in this week's Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The researchers -- from three institutions –– found that growth hormone is produced within the hippocampus, a structure deep inside the brain that is involved in memory and emotion.

The scientists also found that more growth hormone is produced in females than in males, and more in adults. More growth hormone was also produced in response to estrogen. The study has implications for menopausal women using estrogen replacement therapy and for athletes taking growth hormone and anabolic steroids to increase muscle mass.

The scientists suspect that reasoning and mood may also be affected by these differences in the amount of growth hormone in the brain.

"Growth hormone has been associated with growth of muscles and bones, and the production of it was believed to lie mainly in the pituitary gland," said co-author Ken S. Kosik, co-director of the Neuroscience Research Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara. "No one had thought too much about what growth hormone might be doing in the brain. Hormones in the brain may not be obvious compared to what they are doing in the rest of the body."

The authors previously found that hippocampal growth hormone increases with learning. The current study shows that the hormone is very different in males versus females.

"Males and females look different, we act different, so of course our brains are different," said Tracey J. Shors, co-author and a professor of psychology at the Center for Collaborative Neuroscience at Rutgers: the State University of New Jersey. "There are remarkable differences. People used to think of females as a male with hormones. That's just not the case."

The authors found that growth hormone in the brain is increased with stress, especially in males. The effect in females depended on how much estrogen they had at the time. "One interesting interpretation of these results is that exposure to a stressful event increases growth hormone expression in males -- but the increase in females may be dependent on their levels of estrogen at the time," said first author Christine P. Donahue. Donahue, formerly a postdoctoral fellow of Ken Kosik, is an instructor in the Department of Neurology at Harvard Medical School.

The authors suggest that because growth hormone in the body is associated with growth of the body, it may also cause growth in the brain. Females have more dendritic spines (parts of neurons) in the hippocampus than do males. This is especially true when estrogen levels are high and when growth hormone levels are high. They also produce more new neurons in the hippocampus during this time.

"Sex differences in the brain is an area of research that has exploded in recent years," said Shors. "Sex hormones, like estrogen, have a tremendous effect on the growth and architecture of the brain. Several studies in our lab and in others have shown that males learn differently than females. It is possible that sex differences in these hormones are somehow involved."


###
This study was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health. The article, "Growth hormone is produced within the hippocampus where it responds to age, sex and stress," is published in the on-line edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the week of March 27.

*************************************************************

Questions to explore further this topic:

What are hormones?

http://www.wisc-online.com/obj.....id=AP13704
http://www.healthsystem.virgin...../chart.cfm
http://www.emcom.ca/primer/hormones.shtml
http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/.....mones.html
http://www.pituitary.org.uk/endocrine/hormones.htm
http://www.schoolscience.co.uk...../hormones/
http://www.purchon.com/biology/hormones.htm
http://www.nethealthbook.com/h.....ction.html

Hormones of the body: a slide presentation

http://distance.stcc.edu/aandp...../index.htm

Hormones: Flash animations

http://www.msjensen.gen.umn.ed.....-bound.swf
http://www.msjensen.gen.umn.ed.....-bound.swf
http://www.msjensen.gen.umn.ed.....lular_.swf
http://www.msjensen.gen.umn.ed....._and_n.swf

What is the endocrine system?

http://training.seer.cancer.go.....glnds.html
http://www.healthsystem.virgin.....natomy.cfm
http://www.pituitary.org.uk/endocrine/index.htm
http://kidshealth.org/parent/g.....crine.html
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/fa.....NDOCR.html
http://www.innerbody.com/image/endoov.html
http://biology.clc.uc.edu/cour.....docrin.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/g.....rev2.shtml

Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/.....index.html
http://training.seer.cancer.go.....itary.html
http://www.healthsystem.virgin.....tgland.cfm

Adrenal Gland
http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/.....index.html
http://www.endocrineweb.com/adrenal.html
http://training.seer.cancer.go.....renal.html
http://www.healthsystem.virgin.....drengl.cfm

Thyroid and Parathyroid Gland
http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/.....index.html
http://training.seer.cancer.go.....yroid.html
http://biologyinmotion.com/thyroid/
http://www.healthsystem.virgin.....ygland.cfm
http://www.healthsystem.virgin.....aragla.cfm

Pancreas
http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/.....index.html
http://training.seer.cancer.go.....creas.html
http://www.healthsystem.virgin.....ncreas.cfm

Gonads
http://training.seer.cancer.go.....onads.html

Pineal Gland
http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/.....ineal.html

Other Endocrine Glands
http://training.seer.cancer.go.....other.html

What is endocrinology?

http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/.....rview.html

Diseases of the endocrine system

http://www.pituitary.org.uk/disorders/index.htm

History of endocrinology

http://www.endocrinology.org/1.....0years.htm

How are hormones regulated by the body?

http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/.....ntrol.html

Hormone chemistry

http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/...../chem.html

What are the peptide hormones?

http://www.indstate.edu/thcme/.....mones.html

What are the steroid hormones?

http://www.indstate.edu/thcme/.....mones.html

What are growth hormones?

http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/.....it/gh.html

A list of human hormones

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball......Table.html

A list of common vertebrate hormones

http://www.indstate.edu/thcme/.....table.html

Hormones of the reproductive system

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball......mones.html

Hormones and sex behavior

http://salmon.psy.plym.ac.uk/year1/sexbehav.htm
http://health.discovery.com/ce.....rmone.html

Hormones and stress

http://salmon.psy.plym.ac.uk/year1/stressho.htm
http://web.sfn.org/content/Pub.....ssion.html
http://www.psycheducation.org/.....0intro.htm

Are we at the mercy of our hormones?

http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/wom.....ormone.htm

What is the menopausal transition?

http://www.womensmentalhealth.org/topics/mood.html

What is hormone therapy?

http://www.niapublications.org.....safter.asp
http://www.jeanhailes.org.au/i.....rmones.htm
http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101020722/

Plant hormones

http://hcs.osu.edu/hcs300/hormone.htm
http://www.plant-hormones.info/index.htm
http://www.biologie.uni-hambur.....31/31a.htm

Hormones in livestock

http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/policy/hormone2.html
http://www.inchem.org/document.....3jec05.htm

Hormones and evironmental issues

http://toxics.usgs.gov/pubs/FS-027-02/

GAMES

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 4:37 pm; edited 2 times in total
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Wed Apr 26, 2006 6:36 pm    Post subject: Hyena mothers give their cubs a helpful dose of hormones Reply with quote

National Science Foundation
26 April 2006

Hyena mothers give their cubs a helpful dose of hormones

High androgen levels late in pregnancy give dominant mother's cubs a head-start at being pack leaders
Scientists have discovered that a dominant hyena puts her cubs on the road to success before they are born by passing on high levels of certain hormones that make her budding young leaders more aggressive and sexually advanced.
The report, published in the April 27 issue of Nature, is the first study in mammals to demonstrate a relationship between a female's social rank and her ability to influence her offspring's behavior through prenatal hormone transfer. Previously, this phenomenon had only been documented in birds.

Michigan State University's Kay Holekamp, together with her colleagues, spent almost 10 years sampling androgen levels from free-ranging hyenas in Kenya. Androgens are hormones, such as testosterone, that control development of typically masculine characteristics like aggression, muscle development and sexual behavior.

The team found that alpha females had higher androgen levels late in pregnancy when compared to the subordinate, pregnant females in the pack. Consequently, the cubs of the alpha females were more aggressive and exhibited more sexual play, characteristics that elevate the chances for life-success in both sexes.

In hyena packs, male-female social roles are reversed from what is normally found in nature--that is, female hyenas are larger, more aggressive and dominate the group. They even have deceptively male-like genitalia, leading to the misconception that they are hermaphrodites.

According to Jerry Wolff, the National Science Foundation manager whose program helped support this work, "this is a clear example of how the complex integration of genetics, physiology and social environment leads to reproductive success for this species."

Wolff believes that Holekamp's work will create a paradigm shift in how scientists view the establishment of dominance in mammals.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu Apr 27, 2006 6:34 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hormone found to decrease appetite and increase activity

Wednesday 26 April 2006
Imperial College

New research shows how topping up the levels of a hormone found in the gut could help reduce the appetite and increase activity in overweight and obese people.


The study now being pre-published online in the International Journal of Obesity shows how the team from Imperial College London gave injections of oxyntomodulin to fifteen overweight but healthy volunteers from Hammersmith Hospital, and monitored how this affected their food intake, and levels of activity.

Professor Steve Bloom , from Imperial College London, who led the research, said: "The discovery that this hormone has a double effect, increasing energy expenditure as well as reducing food intake, could be of huge importance. When most people diet, this produces a reduction in activity, which is probably an adaptive trait to conserve energy during times of famine. However this does make it especially difficult for obese individuals trying to loose weight. In contrast oxyntomodulin decreases calorific intake, but actually increases energy expenditure, making it an ideal intervention for the obese."

The researchers used fifteen healthy overweight male and female volunteers, aged between 23 and 49 years. The volunteers completed three separate four-day study sessions, where they self administered either saline or oxyntomodulin according to a double blind randomised trial.

After the first injection, the volunteers were given a meal, and their calorific intake was monitored. They spent the next two days in their normal environment, self administering oxyntomodulin three times a day before meals. On the fourth day, the volunteers came back to the hospital to have their energy expenditure measured.

They found that after the first meal, the volunteers ate on average 128 kcal or 17.4 percent less, while activity related energy expenditure increased by an average of 143 kcal or 26.2 percent.

The researchers also found a reduction in body weight by an average of 0.5 percent.

Professor Bloom added: "This discovery could provide doctors with a whole new way to treat the current obesity epidemic. We need to get away from the focus on food and start to think about how to increase exercise. The question is how to make people enjoy taking exercise and how to encourage them to do it spontaneously.

"Oxyntomodulin could work by letting the brain know it has an adequate energy supply and that it can afford to do productive things rather than concentrate solely on food seeking or conserving energy. It signals to the brain that it can increase exercise by letting it know that the energy is available to do more things.

"If used as a therapy for obesity, oxyntomodulin provides a double whammy - reducing food intake and increasing spontaneous activity."

For further information please contact:

Tony Stephenson
Press Officer
Communications Division
Tel: +44 (0)20 7594 6712
Mobile: +44 (0)7753 739766
E-mail: at.stephenson@imperial.ac.uk

Notes to editors:

1. Oxyntomodulin increases energy expenditure in addition to decreasing energy intake in overweight and obese humans: a randomised controlled trial, International Journal of Obesity..

2. Consistently rated in the top three UK university institutions, Imperial College London is a world leading science-based university whose reputation for excellence in teaching and research attracts students (11,000) and staff (6,000) of the highest international quality.
Innovative research at the College explores the interface between science, medicine, engineering and management and delivers practical solutions that enhance the quality of life and the environment - underpinned by a dynamic enterprise culture.
Website: www.imperial.ac.uk
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue Sep 26, 2006 1:15 pm    Post subject: Elevated testosterone kills nerve cells Reply with quote

Yale University
26 September 2006

Elevated testosterone kills nerve cells

New Haven, Conn.--A Yale School of Medicine study shows for the first time that a high level of testosterone, such as that caused by the use of steroids to increase muscle mass or for replacement therapy, can lead to a catastrophic loss of brain cells.

Taking large doses of androgens, or steroids, is known to cause hyperexcitability, a highly aggressive nature, and suicidal tendencies. These behavioral changes could be evidence of alterations in neuronal function caused by the steroids, said the senior author, Barbara Ehrlich, professor of pharmacology and physiology.

"Next time a muscle-bound guy in a sports car cuts you off on the highway, don't get mad, just take a deep breath and realize that it might not be his fault," said Ehrlich.

Testosterone is the main male hormone and it plays fundamental roles in development, differentiation, and cellular growth. In neurons, testosterone acts as a neurosteroid and can induce changes at the cellular level, which in turn lead to changes in behavior, mood and memory. Both neuroprotective and neurodegenerative effects of androgens have been reported.

The researchers showed that high levels of testosterone triggered programmed cell death in nerve cells in culture. Cell death, or apoptosis, is critical in many life processes, including development and disease. It is characterized by membrane instability, activation of caspases, which are the executioner proteins in apoptosis, change in membrane potential, and DNA fragmentation.

"In the present study we have demonstrated for the first time that the treatment of neuroblastoma cells with elevated concentrations of testosterone for relatively short periods, six to 12 hours, induces a decrease in cell viability by activation of a cell death program," Ehrlich said. "Low concentrations of testosterone had no effects on cell viability, whereas at high concentrations the cell viability decreased with incremental increases in hormone concentration."

The testosterone-induced apoptosis described in this study occurs through overactivation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling pathways. Overstimulation of the apoptotic program in neurons has been associated with several neurological illnesses, such as Alzheimer disease and Huntington disease.


###
Co-authors include Manuel Estrada, now continuing his work at the University of Chile in Santiago, and Anurag Varshney, now working at Ranbaxy, a drug discovery company in New Delhi, India.

Journal of Biological Chemistry 281: 25492-25501 (September 2006)
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu Sep 28, 2006 10:20 am    Post subject: Leptin has powerful effect on reward center in the brain Reply with quote

Yale University
28 September 2006

Leptin has powerful effect on reward center in the brain

New Haven, Conn.--Leptin, a hormone critical for normal food intake and metabolism, exerts a strong effect on appetite by acting in the mid-brain region as well as in the hypothalamus, according to a Yale School of Medicine study in Neuron.

"Finding that metabolic hormones directly regulate the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the mid-brain has profound implications for how researchers view the integration of metabolic signals in the brain," said the senior author, Ralph DiLeone, assistant professor of psychiatry.

In this study the researchers demonstrated that leptin signaling, via its receptor, occurs in the dopamine neurons in the VTA and that it results in decreased activity of these neurons.

"Metabolic control over dopamine neuron function in the VTA is likely to have consequences for a broad range of behaviors and associated pathologies," DiLeone said. "These include obesity, drug addiction, and other impulsive behavior."

Leptin's effect in the hypothalamus has been well studied, but it was not known how the hormone affected activity in the VTA, which contains dopamine neurons that are important in modulating motivated behavior, addiction and reward.

Reducing the function of the leptin receptor in the VTA region resulted in animals that ate too much and were hypersensitive to highly palatable foods. "Interestingly, despite the increase in food intake, these animals did not gain weight, possibly as a result of increased activity that was also seen in the animals," DiLeone said.

Food intake is influenced by signals that travel from the body to the brain. Leptin is one of the molecules that signals the brain to modulate food intake. It is produced in fat cells and informs the brain of the metabolic state. If animals are missing leptin, or the leptin receptor, they eat too much and become severely obese.


###
Co-authors include Jonathan Hommel, Richard Trinko, Robert Sears, Dan Georgescu, Jeremy Thurmon, Zong-Wu Liu, and Xiao-Bing Gao, of Yale, and Michela Marinelli of the Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science in Chicago.

Neuron 51: (September 19, 2006)
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Wed Nov 01, 2006 11:19 am    Post subject: STRESS HORMONES MAY PLAY NEW ROLE IN SPEEDING UP CANCER GROW Reply with quote

Ohio State University
1 November 2006

STRESS HORMONES MAY PLAY NEW ROLE IN SPEEDING UP CANCER GROWTH

COLUMBUS , Ohio – New research here suggests that hormones produced during periods of stress may increase the growth rate of a particularly nasty kind of cancer.

The study showed that an increase in norepinephrine, a stress hormone, can stimulate tumor cells to produce two compounds. These compounds can break down the tissue around the tumor cells and allow the cells to more easily move into the bloodstream. From there, they can travel to another location in the body to form additional tumors, a process called metastasis.


Ronald Glaser
The research also suggests the same hormone can also stimulate the tumor cells to release another compound that can aid in the growth of new blood vessels that feed cancer cells, hastening the growth and spread of the disease. The work was reported in the latest issue of the journal Cancer Research.

“This opens up an entirely new way of looking at stress and cancer that's different from current interpretations,” explained Ronald Glaser, a professor of molecular virology, immunology and medical genetics, and director of the Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research at Ohio State University .

Glaser and Eric Yang, a research scientist in the same institute, focused on the role of these three compounds. Two of them, both matrix metalloproteinases -- MMP-2 and MMP-9 -- play a role in breaking down the scaffolding that cells attach to in order to maintain their shape. The third compound, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is important in the growth of new blood vessels into tumor cells.

Earlier work by researcher Anil Sood at the University of Texas had shown that the same stress hormones can stimulate ovarian tumor cells to produce these three compounds. The key to that discovery was that the two stress hormones – epinephrine and norepinephrine – would bind to places on the surface of ovarian cancer cells, called adrenergic receptors, and stimulate the release of MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF which might then foster cancer growth.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

“This suggests a new approach to possibly fight some cancers – the prescribing of beta-blocker-type drugs that would block these receptors and perhaps slow the progression of the disease,” Glaser said.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Ohio State team wanted to see if the same occurred with other cancer cells.

They turned to cell lines Glaser had developed decades ago to study nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a serious, incurable head and neck cancer that occurs most frequently among people of Chinese descent.

They treated Glaser's cell line with norepinephrine and, as predicted, the cells all produced MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF. This showed that the receptors for this hormone were present on cells in Glaser's cell line, but that might have been just a laboratory aberration in the tissue cultures.

“We needed to see how relevant this finding was to what happened with actual tumors,” he said. Glaser asked colleagues for samples of actual NPC tumors to look for the presence of similar receptors. They studied tumor samples which included different types of NPC tumors. All had the sought-after receptors.

“From this we can say that there is likelihood that all NPC tumors will have these receptors as well,” he said.

“MMP-2 and MMP-9 contribute to the aggressiveness of these tumors,” Yang said. “It isn't clear exactly how they are operating but they may work with VEGF to facilitate blood vessel growth in new tumors so that they can grow.”

The target adrenergic receptors for these hormones are well-known to clinicians dealing with high-blood-pressure patients. Typically, such patients are given a class of drugs known as beta-blockers which lead to a lowering of blood pressure levels.

Glaser and Yang wanted to see how these same drugs affected these tumor cells. They added propanol, a beta-blocker, to the tumor cells and then exposed them to both norepinepherine and epinephrine. With the drug present, the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF didn't increase.

“This suggests a new approach to possibly fight some cancers – the prescribing of beta-blocker-type drugs that would block these receptors and perhaps slow the progression of the disease,” Glaser said.

“Using this approach may not cure this cancer but perhaps we could slow down its growth, making the tumor more sensitive to anti-cancer therapy, and therefore extending the patient's lifespan and improve their quality of life.”

Working along with Yang and Glaser were Min Chen, Tim Eubank, Clay Marsh, Scott Jewell, Nicholas Flavahan, Carl Morrison, Peir-En Yeh and Stanley Lemeshow, all of Ohio State, and Anil Sood and Yang Li, both of the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas.

Support for this research came from the National Cancer Institute, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the Gilbert and Kathryn Mitchell Endowment and the OSU Comprehensive Cancer Center.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Fri Feb 02, 2007 8:02 am    Post subject: Oils May Cause Breast Growth in Boys Reply with quote

Oils May Cause Breast Growth in Boys

By Jeff Donn
Associated Press
posted: 01 February 2007
11:21 am ET

BOSTON (AP) — Lavender and tea tree oils found in some shampoos, soaps and lotions can temporarily leave boys with enlarged breasts in rare cases, apparently by disrupting their hormonal balance, a preliminary study suggests.

While advising parents to consider the possible risk, several hormone experts emphasized that the problem appears to happen infrequently and clears up when the oils are no longer used. None of those interviewed called for a ban on sales.

The study reported on the condition, gynecomastia, in three boys ages 4, 7 and 10. They all went back to normal when they stopped using skin lotions, hair gel, shampoo or soap with the natural oils.

It's unclear how often this problem might crop up in other young children.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum....._boys.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Feb 26, 2007 7:33 am    Post subject: Growth hormone to boost athletic performance risks diabetes Reply with quote

BMJ Specialty Journals
25 February 2007

Growth hormone to boost athletic performance risks diabetes

Use of growth hormone to boost athletic performance can lead to diabetes, reports a study published ahead of print in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.

The study reports the case of a 36 year old professional body-builder who required emergency care for chest pain.

He had lost 40 kg in 12 months, during which he had also experienced excessive urination, thirst, and appetite.

He admitted to using anabolic steroids for 15 years and artificial growth hormone for the past three. He had also taken insulin, a year after starting on the growth hormone.

This was done to counter the effects of high blood sugar, but he had stopped taking it after a couple of episodes of acute low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) while at the gym.

Tests revealed that his liver was inflamed, his kidneys were enlarged and that he had very high blood sugar. He was also dehydrated, and diagnosed with diabetes.

He was given intravenous fluids and gradually increasing amounts of insulin over five days, after which he was discharged. His symptoms completely cleared up, and he was no longer diabetic.

The use of growth hormone has steadily risen among amateur athletes and bodybuilders all round the world, say the authors, because it is easy to buy online and difficult to detect in screening tests—unlike anabolic steroids.

The authors believe that this is the first reported case of diabetes associated with the use of high dose growth hormone, and urge anyone taking high doses to regularly check their blood sugar levels.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Mar 12, 2007 7:04 am    Post subject: Scientists find hormone activity explains adolescent mood sw Reply with quote

SUNY Downstate Medical Center
11 March 2007

Scientists find hormone activity explains adolescent mood swings

If your teenager doesn't act the way you expect--blame GABA
The "raging hormones" of puberty are known to produce mood swings and stress for most teenagers, making it difficult to cope with this period of life. Until now, the specific causes of pubertal anxiety have not been identified, making it harder to understand and treat adolescent angst.

In the current edition of the journal Nature Neuroscience, researchers led by Sheryl S. Smith, PhD, professor of physiology and pharmacology at SUNY Downstate Medical Center, report findings demonstrating that a hormone normally released in response to stress, THP, actually reverses its effect at puberty, when it increases anxiety.

This hormone normally acts like a tranquilizer, acting at sites in the brain that "calm" brain activity. In the adult, this stress hormone helps the individual adapt to stress, with a calming effect produced half an hour after the event.

Specifically, the GABA-A receptor is the target for steroids, such as THP (or allopregnanolone), which reduce anxiety. GABA-A receptors calm activity in the brain. As such, they are the targets for most sedative, tranquilizing drugs.

One sub-type, GABA-A receptors containing the delta subunit, such as alpha4-beta2-delta, has the highest sensitivity to steroids. In order to study its role in puberty, the researchers used a mouse model that reliably predicts the human condition. In this rodent model, the alpha4-beta2-delta receptor normally has very low expression, but increases dramatically at the onset of puberty in the part of the brain that regulates emotion. Paradoxically, THP reduced the inhibition produced by these alpha4-beta2-delta GABA-A receptors, increasing brain activity to produce a state of increased anxiety. Stress also increased anxiety at puberty, due to the paradoxical effects of this hormone that is released by stress.

Dr. Smith and colleagues identified the site on human recombinant alpha4-beta2-delta GABA-A receptors that produced the anxiety response, and were able to mutate the site to prevent the novel effect of the stress hormone. In contrast, neither the receptor nor the necessary conditions exist for this anxiety-producing effect of the stress hormone before puberty, because the expression of the receptor is dependent upon hormonal transitions, such as those that occur at puberty. This new finding of a change in the effect of a stress hormone sheds new light on the "mood swings" of puberty.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Apr 02, 2007 8:13 pm    Post subject: Lack of Sleep Causes Old Men's Testosterone to Drop Reply with quote

Lack of Sleep Causes Old Men's Testosterone to Drop

By Robin Lloyd
LiveScience Senior Editor
posted: 02 April 2007
04:34 pm ET

Lack of sleep causes testosterone levels to drop in older men, a new study claims.

The research, detailed in the April 1 issue of the journal SLEEP, measured the quantity of the primary male sex hormone in 12 healthy men, ages 64 to 74, following a night of sleep in a laboratory environment. Diminished sleep was the best independent predictor of drops in testosterone, the researchers found. Testosterone levels are highest in the morning.

The small research sample does not represent the overall population of older U.S. men, making the results "suggestive, not conclusive," said Lawrence Epstein, medical director of Sleep HealthCenters in Brighton, Mass., and past president of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....erone.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu May 10, 2007 1:08 pm    Post subject: Estrogen is important for bone health in men as well as wome Reply with quote

Washington University School of Medicine
10 May 2007

Estrogen is important for bone health in men as well as women

Although women are four times more likely than men to develop osteoporosis, or porous bone, one in 12 men also suffer from the disease, which can lead to debilitating - or even life-threatening - fractures, mainly of the spine, hip and wrist. The underlying causes of osteoporosis are numerous, but in women, low estrogen levels after menopause have been considered an important factor.

As for men - new research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has shown that low amounts of active estrogen metabolites also can increase their osteoporosis risk.

"Most people don't think about estrogen in men, but men actually have somewhat more estrogen on average than do postmenopausal women," says Reina Armamento-Villareal, M.D., assistant professor of medicine in the Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases and a bone specialist at Barnes-Jewish Hospital. She is senior author of a new study in the journal Calcified Tissue International.

"Research by other groups had suggested that estrogen may be more important than testosterone for maintaining bone health in men," she says. "So we designed a study to look at male estrogen levels and bone density."

When estrogen circulates in the body, it passes through the liver where several enzymes convert the standard hormone to other forms - some of these forms, or estrogen metabolites, are active and some are inactive. Individuals differ in how they process estrogen, so the levels of these estrogen metabolites will vary among people. No previous studies have addressed the role of estrogen metabolism and the forms of circulating hormone in male osteoporosis.

The Washington University researchers found that the amounts of active estrogen metabolites are a strong predictor of bone mineral density in the men they studied. Testing hormone levels and bone density as measured by DXA (dual X-ray absorptiometry) scans in 61 men age 50 or older, the researchers saw that men with higher levels of active estrogen metabolites also tended to have higher bone density. Conversely, men with lower levels of these hormones tended to have lower bone density.

Testosterone levels did not affect bone density in these study subjects. Testosterone seems to be responsible for the larger size and thicker outer layers of male bones, but estrogen is possibly a key hormone for maintaining peak bone mineral mass in men, according to the authors.

The researchers also looked at whether other factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, daily calcium intake and body mass index (BMI) affected bone density. Only BMI correlated with bone density: Men with higher BMI tended to have higher bone density, possibly because they also had higher levels of active estrogen metabolites.

Fractures due to osteoporosis are a significant health threat in the elderly. According to Villareal, 25 percent of those who suffer a hip fracture die within a year, and 40-50 percent have some degree of disability or need nursing home care. "It's a very serious problem," she says. "People of retirement age are looking forward to their leisure time, but if they fracture a hip, there are so many things they won't be able to do."

Villareal thinks the health-care system may need to reflect what research is now revealing about estrogen in men. "It would be a good idea to measure estrogen levels in older men who present with low bone mineral density or osteoporosis," Villareal says. "Not only does estrogen and its metabolism affect bone health in men, but it may also influence the risk for prostate cancer."

###
Napoli N, Faccio R, Shrestha V, Bucchieri S, Battista Rini G, Armamento-Villareal R. Estrogen metabolism modulates bone density in men. Calcified Tissue International April 4, 2007 (advanced online publication).

Funding from the National Institutes of Health and the General Clinical Research Center at Washington University supported this research.

Washington University School of Medicine's full-time and volunteer faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient care institutions in the nation, currently ranked fourth in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue May 29, 2007 1:35 pm    Post subject: A new zest for life : How the treatment of common thyroid di Reply with quote

A new zest for life : How the treatment of common thyroid disease reduces tiredness and the risk factors for heart disease
Newcastle University
Date released 29 May 2007

New research from Newcastle University shows treatment for a shortage of the hormone thyroxine lowers cholesterol, reverses weight gain and reduces the risk factors for heart disease.

Putting on weight and feeling lethargic?

Then new research from Newcastle University and funded by Gateshead NHS Foundation Trust shows it is worth having your thyroid levels checked – as these can be symptoms of thyroid disease which is easily identified and treated.

Known medically as sub clinical hypothyroidism, it is characterised by a shortage of the hormone thyroxine and often precedes an underactive thyroid.

It affects up to 16% of women and 6% of men, becoming more prevalent with age.

The research has shown that treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism with thyroid hormone reduces tiredness, cholesterol and reduces the risk factors for heart disease by improving the markers of atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries.

In the study, patients undergoing 12 weeks of thyroxine treatment saw a reduction in their amount of LDL cholesterol, reversed weight gain - losing on average half a kilo, felt less tired and had reduced their risk factors for heart disease.

Until recently many doctors considered this condition not worthy of treatment. Now a new study led by Dr Jolanta Weaver of Newcastle University and Gateshead NHS Foundation Trust published in this month’s issue of The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism shows that treatment leads to significant improvements for patients.

In the largest trial to date, 100 participants with persistent subclinical hypothyroidism were given thyroxine and compared with those taking a placebo or dummy medication.

Dr Salman Razvi and Dr Jolanta Weaver of Newcastle University’s School of Clinical Medical Sciences carried out a pivotal crossover study. They assessed common heart disease risk factors such as the level of LDL, or “bad”, cholesterol, body weight and endothelial function, which is a very early marker of hardening of the arteries. They also asked participants to rate their quality of life.

This treatment did not cause any side-effects.

Dr Weaver says, “The results of our study show that treatment of people with this mild form of underactive thyroid condition leads to significant improvements in risk factors for ischemic heart disease and symptoms of tiredness.”

Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism are being encouraged to discuss their treatment with their doctors.

CASE STUDY

Frances King, 56, from Dunston, Gateshead.

“I took part in the study because I was first diagnosed with a borderline underactive thyroid 27 years ago but never had any treatment. I‘d never been ill but always had a lack of energy and generally felt tired and lethargic. As soon as I was put on the medication I noticed a difference. Since the trial I’ve been back to my GP and have been prescribed thyroxine. I now have more energy and feel brighter.

I’ve battled with my weight for years but since getting the medication I’ve lost a couple of stones because I’m more motivated to do things. I’ve got a real zest for life - I run up the stairs, I’ve got the energy to walk the dogs and I’m out gardening which I hadn’t been doing.”
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Fri Jun 08, 2007 9:43 am    Post subject: Hormone that signals fullness also curbs fast food consumpti Reply with quote

American Physiological Society

Hormone that signals fullness also curbs fast food consumption and tendency to binge eat
BETHESDA, Md. (June 7, 2007) -- The synthetic form of a hormone previously found to produce a feeling of fullness when eating and reduce body weight, also may help curb binge eating and the desire to eat high-fat foods and sweets. The findings on fast food consumption and binge eating tendencies are based on a 6-week research study of 88 obese individuals.

The research, entitled “Pramlintide treatment reduces 24-hour caloric intake and meal sizes and improves control of eating in obese subjects,” appears in the online edition of the American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. Pramlintide is the synthetic form of amylin, a satiety hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas, which also produce insulin.

“Satiety hormones are commonly thought to control food intake by signaling to the brain when we are full,” said Christian Weyer, M.D., the study’s senior author and executive director of clinical research at Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc., in San Diego, Calif. “The findings of our clinical study further suggest that satiety hormones such as amylin can exert multiple effects on human eating behavior, such as reduced intake of highly-palatable foods and reduced binge eating tendency.”

Pramlintide is marketed in the U.S. by Amylin Pharmaceuticals, under the brand name Symlin, to treat diabetes and control blood sugar. Amylin is one of several hormones secreted when eating and is known to work in partnership with insulin to regulate blood sugar. Pramlintide is also under development as a potential drug for obesity.

The study was carried out in 10 U.S. research sites and was reported by Steven R. Smith of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, La.; John E. Blundell of the University of Leeds, United Kingdom; and Colleen Burns, Cinzia Ellero, Brock E. Schroeder, Nicole C. Kesty, Kim Chen, Amy E. Halseth, Cameron W. Lush and Christian Weyer, all of Amylin Pharmaceuticals.

Multi-center, double-blind study

Eighty eight volunteers, comprised of obese men and obese post-menopausal women, 25-60 years old, took part in the 6-week study. (Pre-menopausal females were excluded because estrogen affects hunger and eating.) Participants were divided into treatment and placebo groups at a 2:1 ratio. Neither participants nor investigators knew which subjects were receiving placebo and which pramlintide.

Participants began with a four-day inpatient stay. All subjects received placebo during the first two days. The treatment period began on day three. The subjects received pramlintide or placebo via subcutaneous injection 15 minutes prior to each meal: breakfast, lunch and dinner. They continued their assigned regimen during a 5-week outpatient period (days 5-41) but reported for brief visits to the research unit on days 17 and 31. They returned for a final three days as inpatients, ending the experiment at day 44.

Participants maintained their typical exercise habits and made no lifestyle changes that could account for weight loss. During the inpatient stays, food intake was measured throughout the day under carefully controlled conditions. Participants were allowed to eat as much as they wanted but were told to eat until they were comfortably full.

On inpatient days 1, 3, and 43, offerings included such foods as bagels and cream cheese, muffins, cereal, fruit, sandwiches, casseroles, salads, tortilla chips, potato chips, cookies and soft drinks. They were also offered an evening snack that included peanut butter sandwiches and a cookie.

On inpatient days 2, 4, and 44, participants received a high-fat, high-sugar lunch that included deep-dish pizzas, ice cream and high fructose corn syrup-sweetened soft drinks. These three meals were the “fast-food challenge.”

The participants’ 24-hour food intake was measured on the first day of the experiment, when all were given a placebo, the first treatment day, (day 3) and on day 43. The participants rated their feelings of hunger, fullness and nausea throughout these days using a hand-held electronic device. Participants also completed a 16-item questionnaire on days 1 and 42 that was designed to measure binge eating tendencies.

The researchers looked at weight, portion size, 24-hour caloric intake and consumption at a “fast food” challenge.

Weight: Participants who received pramlintide lost significantly more weight than those who received placebo. This finding fits with earlier research with rodents and some human studies. The pramlintide group lost an average of 4.5 pounds, about 2% of total body weight, while the placebo group remained about the same weight. The weight loss was in line with a 3.7% weight loss during an earlier 16-week study, the authors said.

Calories: The pramlintide group ate significantly fewer calories compared to the first two days of the experiment, before treatment started. On day 3, the first day of treatment, the pramlintide group decreased their food intake by 990 calories while the placebo group decreased caloric intake by a more modest 243 calories. On day 43, the pramlintide group was still ingesting significantly fewer calories (680 less) compared to what they consumed before treatment began. By comparison, the placebo group ate only 191 fewer calories on day 43.

Portion control: Within the inpatient setting, the overall reduction in 24-hour caloric intake with pramlintide was attributable to subjects eating smaller portions at each major meal. What is more, the researchers found that the pramlintide group felt just as full and satiated as the placebo group, even though the pramlintide group was eating considerably less. This suggests that pramlintide participants did not experience the increased feeling of hunger and food craving that often occurs when food intake is reduced with dieting, Weyer said

Fast food intake and binge eating: The researchers also examined how the hormone affected certain “hedonic” aspects of eating. Hedonic eating includes, for instance, the consumption of “fast foods,” that are high in fat or sugar (such as pizza, chocolate and ice cream), often leading to a sense of reward. The pramlintide group reduced fast food intake by 385 calories on day 44 during the “fast-food challenge,” compared to the placebo group, which decreased their intake by 109 calories. Those taking pramlintide also reduced their scores on a questionnaire designed to measure binge eating tendencies: On day 42, 83% of participants on pramlintide were categorized as having “mild-to-none” binge eating severity, compared to 58% in the placebo group.

These new results are interesting in light of previous observations in rodents. Rats typically crave high-sugar foods when placed under stress. When they receive amylin, their stress-induced sugar consumption significantly decreases. On chronic amylin treatment, obese rats also exhibit a long-term switch to eating more healthy chow and less high-fat, high sugar food.

“Our findings illustrate that comprehensive, carefully conducted clinical studies can provide important new insights into how hormones help regulate human eating behavior,” Weyer said. Often times, the food intake effect of hormones in humans is studied only acutely, using a single meal test.

More natural weight control?

Unlike many diet pills, which typically block individual brain chemicals, hormone-based therapies such as pramlintide work by enhancing existing physiological pathways involved in food intake control. By developing therapies based on naturally occurring hormones, it may be possible to help people control how much they eat, reduce binge eating and resist the drive to overeat even while living in today’s environment where access to high-caloric food is abundant every day.

While this research is promising, it appears pramlintide will produce only modest weight loss, probably around 8%, before reaching a plateau. Amylin Pharmaceutical’s clinical research program in obesity includes several ongoing studies that test pramlintide in combination with other hormones involved in weight control, such as peptide YY and leptin, Weyer said. Research in obese rats suggests that amylin may restore the response to leptin, which is often lost in obesity. The hope is that this combination approach will help achieve even greater appetite control and weight loss.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Jul 23, 2007 9:30 am    Post subject: Steroids, not songs, spur growth of brain regions in sparrow Reply with quote

University of Washington
23 July 2007

Steroids, not songs, spur growth of brain regions in sparrows

Neuroscientists are attempting to understand if structural changes in the brain are related to sensory experience or the performance of learned behavior, and now University of Washington researchers have found evidence that one species of songbird apparently has something in common with a few baseball sluggers. Both rely on steroids, birds to increase the size of song production areas of their brain and some players, apparently, to knock a fastball out of the park.

Writing last month in the Journal of Neuroscience, Eliot Brenowitz and his colleagues showed that the Gambel’s white-crowned sparrow uses testosterone, a naturally occurring steroid, to trigger the seasonal growth of these brain regions. Birds use song to attract mates and mark their territory. Their finding is counter to some previous work with other birds and rodents that indicated environmental factors can influence brain development and create more neuronal connections.

“We would like to think that if we shape the environment we can guide the brain’s structure,” said Brenowitz, a UW professor of psychology and biology. “But the idea that experience can drive growth of the brain regions that control song behavior in birds was disproved by this study. You can change the experience and the behavior, but you don’t change the structure of the brain.”The UW scientists found that the three brain regions in white-crowned sparrows that had been deafened were just as large as those regions in normal sparrows. However, the deafened birds only sang one-eighth the number of songs that the hearing birds sang.

To show this, the researchers captured 19 adult male white-crowned sparrows during their fall migration and housed them in short-day light conditions to mimic winter for 12 weeks. Eleven of the birds then were surgically deafened. A week after the surgery, all of the birds were given testosterone implants and were shifted to long-day light conditions, similar to what they would encounter during their breeding season in Alaska.

The birds’ three song-control regions are called the HVC, RA and X. All are located in the forebrain and grow quickly and in sequence. The brains of the birds were examined after 7 and 30 days, and the volume of the song production areas did not differ between the deafened and the hearing sparrows. Even though the deafened birds sang considerably less often, there was no degradation in the structure of their songs, according to Brenowitz.

Another major finding of the study is that seasonal growth of these song production areas of the brain does not require hearing or high levels of singing. “This is surprising to a lot of people because many thought seasonal growth of song nuclei was related to the rate of singing,” he said. While the research was conducted on birds, it also has potential long-term human applications, addressing the broad issue of environment enrichment supporting brain plasticity.

“This study suggests that playing tapes of recorded speech to try to help a person recover language after a stroke might not be productive. But perhaps we could use neutrophins, growth-inducing proteins whose synthesis by brain neurons is stimulated by testosterone. In sparrows, brain areas are directly stimulated by these hormones to grow and one day such hormones might possibly help repair brain damage caused by strokes or neurodegenerative diseases,” said Brenowitz.

###

Co-authors of the study are Karin Lent, a UW research technician, and Edwin Rubel, a professor of otolaryngology who is also affiliated with the UW’s Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center. The National Institutes of Mental Health and of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders funded the research.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Fri Sep 14, 2007 2:16 pm    Post subject: 1 in 4 Men Over 30 Has Low Testosterone Reply with quote

1 in 4 Men Over 30 Has Low Testosterone
By Madeline Vann, HealthDay Reporter

posted: 13 September 2007 11:27 pm ET

(HealthDay News) -- New research suggests that one out of four men over 30 have low testosterone levels, but only one out of every 20 men have clinical symptoms linked to such a deficiency.

As men age, they are more likely to experience symptoms such as lack of sex drive and erectile dysfunction as a result of low levels of testosterone, the researchers explain.

Low testosterone is defined as 300ng/dL (nanograms per deciliter) of total testosterone and less than 5 ng/dL of free testosterone. Free testosterone is the amount of hormone not bound to other proteins.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/healthday/608084.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Sat Oct 20, 2007 6:09 am    Post subject: Troubling Meaty 'Estrogen' Reply with quote

Week of Oct. 20, 2007; Vol. 172, No. 16

Troubling Meaty 'Estrogen'
High temperature cooking can imbue meats with a chemical that acts like a hormone

Janet Raloff

Women take note. Researchers find that a chemical that forms in overcooked meat, especially charred portions, is a potent mimic of estrogen, the primary female sex hormone. That's anything but appetizing, since studies have linked a higher lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogen in women with an elevated risk of breast cancer.

For the full article:

http://sciencenews.org/articles/20071020/food.asp
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Fri Dec 07, 2007 2:43 pm    Post subject: Antibacterial chemical disrupts hormone activities Reply with quote

University of California - Davis
7 December 2007

Antibacterial chemical disrupts hormone activities

A new UC Davis study shows that a common antibacterial chemical added to bath soaps can alter hormonal activity in rats and in human cells in the laboratory—and does so by a previously unreported mechanism.

The findings come as an increasing number of studies – of both lab animals and humans – are revealing that some synthetic chemicals in household products can cause health problems by interfering with normal hormone action.

Called endocrine disruptors, or endocrine disrupting substances (EDS), such chemicals have been linked in animal studies to a variety of problems, including cancer, reproductive failure and developmental anomalies.

This is the first endocrine study to investigate the hormone effects of the antibacterial compound triclocarban (also known as TCC or 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide), which is widely used in household and personal care products including bar soaps, body washes, cleansing lotions, wipes and detergents. Triclocarban-containing products have been marketed broadly in the United States and Europe for more than 45 years; an estimated 1 million pounds of triclocarban are imported annually for the U.S. market.

The researchers found two key effects: In human cells in the laboratory, triclocarban increased gene expression that is normally regulated by testosterone. And when male rats were fed triclocarban, testosterone-dependent organs such as the prostate gland grew abnormally large.

Also, the authors said their discovery that triclocarban increased hormone effects was new. All previous studies of endocrine disruptors had found that they generally act by blocking or decreasing hormone effects.

“This finding may eventually lead to an explanation for some rises in some previously described reproductive problems that have been difficult to understand,” said one author, Bill Lasley, a UC Davis expert on reproductive toxicology and professor emeritus of veterinary medicine. More analyses of antibacterials and endocrine effects are planned, he said.

Consumers should not take this study as guidance on whether to use triclocarban-containing products, Lasley said. “Our mothers taught us to wash our hands well before the advent of antimicrobial soaps, and that practice alone prevents the spread of disease.”


###
The new study was published online this week by the journal Endocrinology (“Triclocarban enhances testosterone action: A new type of endocrine disruptor"”) at: http://endo.endojournals.org/rep.shtml).

The nine authors are Lasley; Jiangang Chen; Ki Chang Ahn; Nancy Gee, Mohamed I. Mohamed, Antoni Duleba, Ling Zhao, Shirley Gee and Bruce Hammock. They are associated with these UC Davis programs: Center for Health and the Environment; Department of Entomology; California National Primate Research Center; Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility at the School of Medicine; Department of Nutrition; and the Cancer Center.

In their disclosure statement, the authors report that six of them have taken steps to patent their findings through the University of California.

This research was supported by the Superfund Basic Research Program of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Sat Jan 05, 2008 6:12 am    Post subject: A Different Side of Estrogen Reply with quote

Week of Jan. 5, 2008; Vol. 173, No. 1 , p. 8

A Different Side of Estrogen
Second receptor complicates efforts to understand hormone
Sarah C. Williams

The mice in Jan-Åke Gustafsson's lab are obese, their bones are brittle, and their spleens are unusually big. The female mice produce fewer and smaller litters than normal mice. They also are more likely to develop high blood pressure and a disease that resembles human leukemia. In fact, problems of one sort or another afflict almost every major organ system in their fragile, overweight bodies.

For the full article:

http://sciencenews.org/articles/20080105/bob10.asp
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
Display posts from previous:   
Post new topic   Reply to topic   printer-friendly view    USAP PAETE Forum Index -> Science Lessons Forum All times are GMT - 5 Hours
Page 1 of 1

 
Jump to:  
You can post new topics in this forum
You can reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2005 phpBB Group