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(Earth) Volcanoes: Alaskan Volcano Showing Signs of Erupting
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 16, 2005 11:55 am    Post subject: (Earth) Volcanoes: Alaskan Volcano Showing Signs of Erupting Reply with quote






Alaskan Volcano Showing Signs of Erupting
By JEANNETTE J. LEE, Associated Press Writer
Thu Dec 15, 8:00 PM ET

ANCHORAGE, Alaska - A sulfurous steam plume, hundreds of miniature earthquakes and a new swath of ash on snowy Augustine Volcano have scientists looking for a possible eruption in the next few months.

The 4,134-foot volcano hasn't shown such signs since it last erupted in 1986, when ash from a 7-mile-high column drifted over Anchorage, the state's most populous city, and kept flights out of the skies over Cook Inlet.

"It's steaming more vigorously right now than it has at any point since 1986," Steve McNutt, research professor of volcano seismology with the Alaska Volcano Observatory, said Wednesday.

The observatory has been monitoring the uninhabited volcanic island more closely since bumping its status up to code yellow from green on Nov. 29. Code yellow means the volcano is restless and showing signs of an eruption.

Steam mixed with sulfur dioxide gas has been billowing vigorously since late last week from a space between lava domes formed during Augustine's most recent eruptions, in 1976 and 1986.

The presence of sulfur, one of the main magmatic gases, is a sign that molten rock has moved closer to surface, McNutt said.

Residents on the Kenai Peninsula about 50 miles across Cook Inlet have reported the rotten-egg smell of sulfur fumes floating into their communities.

"On Sunday night I woke up with the taste of sulfur in the back of my throat," said Kevin Seville, who lives in the Russian and Alutiiq village of Nanwalek.

Seismometers have recorded more than 170 small temblors over the last week, and 74 on Sunday alone. The average for the past 15 years has been about one to two per week.

The jump is "very dramatic," McNutt said. But he noted the magnitudes — less than 1 — were still smaller than the bulk of the earthquakes preceding the 1986 eruption.

The entire island, located 171 miles southwest of Anchorage, has inflated by as much as one inch as injections of molten rock rise into the mountain from beneath the earth's surface, he said.

Scientists on a flyover earlier this week also spotted a swath of new ash on the snow-covered peak. The thin dusting indicates cracks have opened on the mountain to vent steam.

"It could be days, weeks, months before we see something else, or at any point here things could just stop," said Chris Nye, research assistant professor at the observatory, a joint program between the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Alaska Fairbanks and state Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys.

Nanwalek residents are monitoring the volcano observatory's Web site and have packed emergency supplies in case an ash cloud cuts out air service, the main source of transportation to and from the village.

"We're isolated as it is, when you throw ash into the mix, it makes it really hard to connect," Seville said.

*************************************************************
Related Lessons (Elementary Level)


http://www.sciencenetlinks.com.....;DocID=296

*************************************************************

Questions to explore further this topic:

What are volcanoes?

http://www.fema.gov/kids/volcano.htm
http://www.fema.gov/kids/volfacts.htm

Where did the name "volcano" come from?

http://library.thinkquest.org/.....legend.php

What is the structure of a volcano?

http://library.thinkquest.org/.....ucture.php

What are the different types of volcanoes?

http://library.thinkquest.org/...../types.php

What is an eruption?

http://library.thinkquest.org/...../erupt.php

What are the various type of eruptions?

http://library.thinkquest.org/.....erupts.php

What are the effects of an eruption?

http://library.thinkquest.org/.....ffects.php

What are hotspots?

http://library.thinkquest.org/.....tspots.php

How do we study volcanoes?

http://www.fema.gov/kids/lavamap.htm

Who studies volcanoes?

http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/how_to.html

Can eruptions be predicted?

http://library.thinkquest.org/.....iction.php

Where are the volcanoes (on land) on Earth?

http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/.....mages.html

Are there volcanoes in other heavenly bodies?

http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/.....orlds.html

Where are the most recent eruptions?

http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/.....rrent.html

Here are some movies of volcanoes:

http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/movies/movie.html

What are the volcanoes in the Philippines?

http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volc.....anoes.html
http://www.vulkaner.no/v/volca.....cphil.html
http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/v.....onics.html
http://www.volcanolive.com/philippines.html

GAMES

http://www.learnenglish.org.uk.....anoes.html
http://www.enchantedlearning.c.....ties.shtml
http://library.thinkquest.org/.....index.html
http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/v.....n/fun.html


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 4:58 pm; edited 4 times in total
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 23, 2005 8:41 am    Post subject: Alaska braces for possible volcanic eruption Reply with quote

Alaska braces for possible volcanic eruption
By Yereth Rosen
Thu Dec 22, 9:14 PM ET

ANCHORAGE, Alaska (Reuters) - A restless volcano near Alaska's most populated region is being watched by scientist and officials, who warned on Thursday of the risk of clouds of ash and a tsunami from a possible eruption.

The intensifying rumblings in the past few weeks at Augustine Volcano, an island peak 175 miles southwest of Anchorage in Cook Inlet, have produced a series of steam explosions, releases of sulfur gas and signs that there may be an eruption similar to events in 1986 and 1976 which sent ash clouds as high as 40,000 feet, scientists said.

There has even been an increase of 1 inch at the top of the 4,134-foot (1,260-m) volcano, a sign that seismic activity is causing the summit to bulge slightly, said John Power, a seismologist with the Alaska Volcano Observatory, a joint office run by the U.S. Geological Survey and state agencies.

"All of these things are very typical of what you would expect to see in a volcano that is reawakening," Power said.

Although there are no specific signs that an eruption is imminent, flight restrictions are already in place and there are plans to expand those if activity increases at the volcano.

If Augustine does erupt, that could result in grounded flights, school closures and even evacuations, officials said. It is also possible that there will be a landslide from the volcano into the waters of Cook Inlet, causing a tsunami, they said.

Such an event occurred in 1883, when a wave believed to be 20 feet high hit the Native Alutiiq village of Nanwalek, 50 miles east of Augustine.

"Any time you have a volcano on the water that's erupting, common sense says you could have a flank collapse and a wave," said Paul Whitmore, director of the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center.

Anchorage is too far away to be at risk from an Augustine-related tsunami, Whitmore added.

But preparations for the possibility are well under way in Nanwalek, said Sergie Active, rector of the local Russian Orthodox church in the village of 200 people.

"We would have to go to higher ground, basically. The first thing is to have things packed away, just in case," Active said in a telephone interview from the local tribal council office.

"We have asked all the households to have sleeping bags, clothes, food, first-aid kits -- all the things that would be needed."

Augustine is one of Alaska's most active volcanoes, with five eruptive periods since the late 1800s, scientists said. Those events have generally started with major ash explosions that last a few days, followed by months of less powerful eruptions that produce oozing lava at the summit, they said.
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 14, 2006 4:45 pm    Post subject: Volcano in Alaska Erupts for Third Day Reply with quote

Volcano in Alaska Erupts for Third Day
By JEANNETTE J. LEE, Associated Press Writer
Sat Jan 14, 8:41 AM ET

Snowflakes laced with fine, gray ash fell on communities south of Anchorage as a series of volcanic eruptions continued early Saturday on an uninhabited island dozens of miles away.

Plumes of ash from the volcano drifted across Cook Inlet and into Homer, 75 miles to the northeast, halting air travel and closing schools in some Kenai Peninsula communities Friday.

In Seldovia, 15 miles north of Homer, city manager Kurt Reynertson noticed a fine dusting of ash on cars, but he said "That's the only way I was able to pick up that there was ash falling."

The 4,134-foot Augustine Volcano began erupting Wednesday after a 20-year lull. By Saturday morning, it had erupted at least eight time, and scientists at the Alaska Volcano Observatory said they expect more eruptions over the next several days or weeks.

"I see no reason they would stop," said Stephanie Prejean, a seismologist with the U.S. Geological Survey.

The National Weather Service warned about 16,000 residents of the Kenai Peninsula and Kodiak Island to the south about the ash cloud, which could pose a health risk, especially for people with respiratory problems.

Alaska Airlines also canceled 28 flight into Anchorage and Fairbanks on Friday and early Saturday as a safety precaution. Ash can damage the engines of aircraft and vehicles on the ground.

Charlie Franz, chief executive officer of South Peninsula Hospital in Homer, said his staff was putting extra filters in the hospital's air handling system.

"Just don't go out if you don't have to," he said. "I think that's probably the best advice people can get.

___

On the Net:

Alaska Volcano Observatory: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/

Weather Service: http://pafc.arh.noaa.gov/augustine.php
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PostPosted: Tue Feb 21, 2006 12:19 pm    Post subject: Mayon Volcano rumbles, ejects ash Reply with quote

Mayon Volcano rumbles, ejects ash
22 February 2006
Manila Bulletin
By ED DE LEON

LEGAZPI CITY — Mayon Volcano in Albay yesterday spewed an ash column of 500 meters as signs of restiveness were monitored by the Phivolcs observatory at Lignon Hill here.

These were confirmed by residents living within the six-kilometer permanent danger zone in this city who added these were accompanied by loud hissing sounds similar to boiling water.

Ed Laguerta, a resident scientist at the Lignon Hill observatory, said that the latest occurrence of powerful ash ejection was recorded sometime at 9:41 a.m. Tuesday.

Some traces of ashfall were reported in the southwest part of Albay, including Ligao City and Polangui, due to the northeasterly winds or "hanging amihan."

Laguerta said some 147 low frequency (volcanic) earthquakes were recorded in the past 15 hours, indicating that magma is rising towards the crater.

He said the occurrence of low-frequency quakes was noted from 3 p.m. on Monday to 6 a.m. Tuesday, a few hours before Mayon blew its top.

Laguerta said the presence of low frequency quakes could mean that magma is moving up the crater, which could explain the ash puffing and possible explosion.

As the volcano showed fresh signs of abnormality, the Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council (PDCC) renewed its warning to villagers to keep away from the six-kilometer permanent danger zone to avoid the hazards of sudden pyroclastic flows and volcanic debris.

Albay Gov. Fernando Gonzalez, PDCC chairman, said that he has instructed his disaster preparedness officials to be on alert following the incident now made more serious by more low frequency earthquakes and the development of lava piles and dome at the Mayon crater rim.

The PDCC also issued an advisory to the Department of Tourism not to allow tourists and trekkers to climb Mayon due to its abnormal condition.

Laguerta said that Alert Level 2 remains hoisted over Mayon.

He said raising the alert level would depend on the results of the aerial survey they will be conducting in the next few days.

An aerial survey by Phivolcs on Mayon showed that lava is accumulating within the summit crater as the usual bowl-like morphology of the crater floor is now occupied by a lava pile.

He said that if the crater fills up, lava may spill over the lowest portion of the crater rim which faces the southeast quadrant of the volcano, threatening the towns of Daraga and Sto. Domingo, including this city.
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PostPosted: Tue Feb 28, 2006 11:48 am    Post subject: Lost City Buried by Volcano Said Found Reply with quote

Lost City Buried by Volcano Said Found
By Ray Henry
Associated Press
posted: 28 February 2006
08:08 am ET


NARRAGANSETT, R.I. (AP)—Scientists have found what they believe are traces of the lost Indonesian civilization of Tambora, which was wiped out in 1815 by the biggest volcanic eruption in recorded history.
Mount Tambora's cataclysmic eruption on April 10, 1815, buried the inhabitants of Sumbawa Island under searing ash, gas and rock and is blamed for an estimated 88,000 deaths. The eruption was at least four times more powerful than Mount Krakatoa's in 1883.

Guided by ground-penetrating radar, U.S. and Indonesian researchers recently dug in a gully where locals had found ceramics and bones. They unearthed the remains of a thatch house, pottery, bronze and the carbonized bones of two people, all in a layer of sediment dating to the eruption.

University of Rhode Island volcanologist Haraldur Sigurdsson, the leader of the expedition, estimated that 10,000 people lived in the town when the volcano erupted in a blast that dwarfed the one that buried the Roman town of Pompeii.

The eruption shot 400 million tons of sulfuric gases into the atmosphere, causing global cooling and creating what historians call "The Year Without a Summer.'' Farms in Maine suffered crop-killing frosts in June, July and August. In France and Germany, grape and corn crops died, or the harvests were delayed.

The civilization on Sumbawa Island has intrigued researchers ever since Dutch and British explorers visited in the early 1800s and were surprised to hear a language that did not sound like any other spoken in Indonesia, Sigurdsson said. Some scholars believe the language more closely resembled those spoken in Indochina. But not long after Westerners first encountered Tambora, the society was destroyed.

"The explosion wiped out the language. That's how big it was,'' Sigurdsson said. "But we're trying to get these people to speak again, by digging.''

Some of what the researchers found may suggest Tambora's inhabitants came from Indochina or had commercial ties with the region, Sigurdsson said. For example, ceramic pottery uncovered during the dig resembles that common to Vietnam.

John Miksic, an archaeologist at the National University of Singapore, has seen video of the dig and said he believes Sigurdsson's team did find a dwelling destroyed by the eruption.

But he doubts the Tamborans were from Indochina or spoke a language from that area. If Vietnamese-style ceramics reached the island, it was probably through trade with intermediaries, Miksic said.

During the dig, Sigurdsson's team found the charred skeleton of a woman who was most likely in her kitchen. A metal machete and a melted glass bottle lay nearby. The remains of another person were found just outside what was probably the front door.

The team included researchers from the University of North Carolina at Wilmington and the Indonesian Directorate of Volcanology.
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PostPosted: Tue Mar 07, 2006 6:31 pm    Post subject: Vesuvius Could Destroy Naples, History Suggests Reply with quote

Vesuvius Could Destroy Naples, History Suggests
By Ker Than
LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 06 March 2006
05:00 pm ET

Long before Mount Vesuvius buried Pompeii in rock and ash, the volcano erupted in an even more powerful explosion that affected the area occupied by present-day Naples. It left the region a desert wasteland for centuries afterwards, a new study reports.

The so-called Avellino eruption occurred about 3,780 years ago during the Bronze Age and was at least twice as powerful as the one that smothered Pompeii and the nearby town of Herculaneum in 79 AD.

If a similar-sized eruption occurred today, it would destroy the entire Italian port-city of Naples and displace millions of people, experts say.

The findings are detailed in the March 7 issue of the journal for the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Image Galleries
http://www.livescience.com/php.....mp;index=0

Far flung destruction

Scientists have known about the Avellino eruption since the 1980s but didn't know that its destructive influences extended so far.

"We didn't know that the city of Naples would be so threatened," said study leader Michael Sheridan of the University of Buffalo in New York. "We never had evidence for a blast extending into the Neapolitan area and beyond it."

Based on recent geological and archaeological evidence, scientists now think that the Avellino eruption rained more than a meter of hot ash and pumice— a light, sponge-like rock that forms when ejected magma solidifies in air— as far as 9 miles away. Naples is located about 6 miles away from Vesuvius.

Scientists think that the Avellino eruption shot a column of superheated rock and dust more than 20 miles high, darkening skies for miles around. In areas close to the volcano, scorched rocks rained down at more than 150 mph.

Driven by westerly winds, the ejected debris blanketed thousands of square miles northeast of the volcano, creating a bleak landscape of uninhabitable desert that lasted for more than 200 years.

In the prehistoric village of Nola 9 miles away, archeologists discovered skeletons of dogs and nine pregnant goats. A little east of the village, they uncovered the skeletons of a man and a woman buried beneath more than 3 feet of debris; the pair probably died of asphyxiation as they tried to escape.

Scientists think most people survived the eruption, however. Thousands of human and animal footprints have been found around Vesuvius, embedded in wet volcanic ash and leading away from the volcano. Based on estimates of the sustainability of the land during the time, scientists estimate that more than 10,000 people were living in the region when the volcano erupted.

Naples not prepared

Scientists think that Vesuvius formed some 25,000 years ago and that it experiences one major eruption every 2,000 years or so. There are dozens of smaller eruptions between the major events, however. Some 30 minor eruptions are thought to have occurred since the 79 AD catastrophe that destroyed Pompei. The last eruption was in 1944.

Sheridan estimates that there is more than a 50 percent chance of an eruption occurring within the next year.

"With each year that goes by, the statistical probability increases," he said.

And while Naples has emergency plans to deal with smaller eruptions, Sheridan doesn't think it's prepared for a major one. He said an eruption the size of Avellino today would destroy Naples and displace more than 3 million people.

"This eruption is much larger than the ones that are currently anticipated at Vesuvius," Sheridan said. "What would you do with the evacuation of 3 million people? They're not coming back. There won't be anything to come back to."
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PostPosted: Tue Apr 18, 2006 2:04 pm    Post subject: Volcanoes in Luzon continue to quake Reply with quote

Wednesday, April 19, 2006


Volcanoes in Luzon continue to quake

By Mark Ivan Roblas, Correspondent
Manila Times

VOLCANOES in Luzon continue to be restive as more seismic activity was detected at the Taal Volcano on Monday.

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology has recorded five high-frequency earthquakes in the world-renowned smallest volcano, a phenomenon that has not happened in the last decade.

Agnes Aguilar, supervising science research specialist for Phivolcs, said the activity was not normal since seismic movements in the volcano have not been recorded at that rate.

“We believe the Taal has resumed activity. Usually we do not record quakes that high,” he said.

Aguilar said Taal has remained dormant for so many years until Monday.

Previous activity was considered normal.

In the previous week, Phivolcs registered 16 high-frequency volcanic earthquakes in the main crater.

However, Alert Level 1 status has not been raised and only the main crater remains off-limits to the public.

Activity in Bulusan and Mayon volcanoes, which are located in Southern Luzon, has persisted but at a decreasing rate.

Phivolcs recorded six high-frequency volcanic earthquakes in Bulusan that were accompanied with white steam rising high as 150 meters from the mouth of the volcano.

Aguilar said the white steam, or sulfur dioxide emission, from Bulusan has decreased from a normal of 4,000 tons a day to 712 tons.

“We hope that the decrease in the activity is not a normal gap in activity but a continuous reduction,” he said.

The Phivolcs has also lowered its alert level in Mayon Volcano from 2 to 1 after only six tremors were recorded last week.
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PostPosted: Thu May 25, 2006 3:43 pm    Post subject: Study outlines eruption at undersea volcano Reply with quote

Oregon State University
25 May 2006

Study outlines eruption at undersea volcano

NEWPORT, Ore. – An international team of scientists has presented its findings from the first observations of the eruption of a submarine volcano that in 2004 and 2005 spewed out plumes of sulfur-rich fluid and pulses of volcanic ash 550 meters below the ocean's surface near the Mariana Islands northwest of Guam.
Those findings will be published Thursday in Nature – just after many of those same scientists returned from another expedition to the site, where they observed new bursts of erupting lava.

The researchers have now observed eruptive activity at the site during three separate visits over a period of more than two years, suggesting that these types of deep-sea volcanoes erupt chronically for longer periods than other undersea volcanoes located on the mid-ocean ridge. The eruptive activity they just observed at a volcano dubbed Northwest Rota-1 was explosive, but provided some of the closest observations ever of a volcano, thanks to the help of an underwater robot.

"We were forced to evacuate the remotely operated vehicle, 'Jason II,' several times to avoid getting it enveloped in volcanic clouds," said Bill Chadwick, an Oregon State University volcanologist and one of the authors of the study. "But at other times, we could observe the eruption from only 10 feet away – something you could never do on land. So in some ways, we were able to see processes more clearly at the bottom of the ocean than we ever could on land. That was surprising."

In their Nature article, the authors outline their 2004 discovery of an active crater on the south side of Rota's summit they named "Brimstone Pit" that was discharging a "pulsating, opaque, yellowish smoky plume with characteristics unlike any known hydrothermal plumes." The plume would fluctuate in volume and intensity, punctuated by explosions of sulfurous clouds.

The researchers also describe their return visit to the site in 2005, when Rota showered their ROV with volcanic "bombs," globs of semi-molten sulfur and debris about 15 centimeters in size that shot out 50 meters above Brimstone Pit.

The science team also found microbial mats and hydrothermal vent-dependent animals on Rota, including two different species of alvinocaridid shrimp that numbered as many as 200 per square meter. This year, they found that at least one of the shrimp species was supplementing its diet by eating dead mid-water fish that fell to the seafloor – apparently killed by the toxic cloud above the volcano.

The study outlined in the Nature article was part of the 2004 Submarine Ring of Fire program, supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Canadian Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, and from an expedition in 2005 sponsored by the Japanese Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology.

The lead author of the paper was Robert Embley, a geophysicist with NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. Chadwick, the second author, is affiliated with the Cooperative Institute for Marine Resource Studies, a joint OSU-NOAA program. Both work out of OSU's Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport, and are adjunct professors in OSU's College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences.

Four other research assistants from the CIMRS program at the Hatfield Marine Science Center were on the 2006 cruise: Leigh Evans, Ron Greene, Susan Merle and Andra Bobbitt.

The 2006 return to Rota was jaw-dropping, the researchers said.

"We saw features of submarine volcanic activity never before directly observed, including explosions of lava from a crater accompanied by a red glow and voluminous volcanic gases and ejected rocks," Embley said.

Sounds of the eruptive activity were recorded on a portable hydrophone placed on the nearby seafloor.

On another volcano called Daikoku, in the northern part of the Mariana volcanic arc, the researchers discovered a pool of molten sulfur at a depth of 420 meters. It was measured at 187 degrees Celsius.

"It was a sulfur pond with a flexible 'crust' that was moving in a wavelike motion," Chadwick said. "The movement was triggered by continuous gases being emitted from beneath the pool and passing through the sulfur. It was a riveting sight."

The work is significant because the geology of the Mariana arc, which includes Saipan and Iwo Jima as well as Guam, is similar to that of the Cascade Mountain Range of the Pacific Northwest and provides clues to terrestrial volcanic activity. Mount St. Helens, for example, lies within the Cascades. Both are on the Pacific "Ring of Fire" and, in each case, an oceanic plate is being subducted beneath another plate, causing a string of volcanoes above where the plate begins to melt.

The deep-sea vents located near the undersea volcanoes may also harbor clues to the origin of life on Earth, many scientists believe.

While much of the focus has been on Rota, because of its recent volcanic activity, the researchers have surveyed more than 50 submarine volcanoes in the Mariana arc. At some of the sites they observed in 2004 using an ROV, they discovered black "smokers" – chimneys made from spewing minerals and hydrothermal vents. Most such vents are deep in the ocean, but they found some on the shallow summits of volcanoes with schools of tropical fish, tuna and sharks swimming nearby.

"As the ROV came closer to the surface, where the sunlight was able to penetrate, it was just a riot of life with incredible amounts of fish and corals," Chadwick said. "But what was truly unique was that two fundmentally different kinds of ecosystems were overlapping here – one based on sunlight and one based on chemicals."


###


Note to Editors: Extraordinary video, images and hydrophone sounds from the researchers' recent 2006 trip is available for news media use at: ftp://ftp.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/chadwick/SRoF06/ Descriptions of the materials and credit information also are available.
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PostPosted: Mon May 29, 2006 2:31 pm    Post subject: Volcano's lake turns from blue to red Reply with quote

Volcano's lake turns from blue to red
By RAY LILLEY, Associated Press Writer
Sun May 28, 11:58 PM ET



A lake atop a rumbling volcano on the South Pacific island of Ambae has changed color from blue to bright red, puzzling scientists.

Mount Manaro, one of four active volcanos on the island nation of Vanuatu, has been showing signs of erupting for only the second time in 122 years.

"We are still ... trying to understand this change of color in the lake from blue to red," Geology and Mines Department director Esline Garae said by telephone Monday from Vanuatu's capital, Port Vila.

She said two scientists on Ambae Island were monitoring Lake Vui as well as seismic activity on the 5,000-foot Mount Manaro.

If the change of color "comes from new activity in the ground or just chemical change in the lake — these are two things I want to know from those guys before I can say anything" about the danger posed by the volcano, she said.

Mount Manaro last erupted in November 2005, forcing half the island's 10,000 inhabitants to evacuate their villages. An 1884 eruption killed scores of villagers.

New Zealand volcanologist Brad Scott said Lake Vui's color was "quite a spectacular red," but what had caused it "is the $64,000-question."

He said water samples from the lake would help determine what was happening in the crater and below it.

The color change could be a chemical process or gas from molten volcanic rock or something else coming into the lake, he said.

Three other volcanos in Vanuatu — Lopevi, Yasur and a two-crater volcano on Ambryn Island called Marum and Benbow — have spewed rocks, ash, smoke and steam in recent weeks.

Vanuatu, formerly the New Hebrides Islands, is made up of 13 main islands located about 1,400 miles east of Australia.
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PostPosted: Sun Jun 11, 2006 1:33 pm    Post subject: Volcano’s 4-km radius is off limits Reply with quote

Volcano’s 4-km radius is off limits


11 June 2006
By MADEL R. SABATER & ARIS ILAGAN

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) yesterday reported another ash explosion at Mt. Bulusan prompting the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) to warn residents to take precautions against the adverse effects of ashfall.


Meanwhile, President Arroyo has ordered the National Disaster Coordinating Center to reinforce contingency measures for the possibility of an eruption.

Phivolcs said the latest minor eruption, the sixth recorded on Mt. Bulusan this year, generated an ash and steam cloud which rose about "one kilometer above the volcano’s summit."

The ash explosion was recorded at 12 a.m. yesterday and sent ash drifting east and northeast affecting the barangays San Isidro, Sta. Barbara, Buang and Purog in the municipality of Bulusan, Sorsogon.

"Alert Level 2 remains in effect which means that the area within four kilometers of the summit is off limits," Phivolcs said.

"Areas within the northeast and eastern sectors should expect more ashfall with succeeding explosions due to prevailing winds," it added.

Phivolcs said that "additional precautions should be observed for areas near river channels" since ash and other loose deposits from the upper slopes may be "remobilized into life-threatening volcanic flows."

Meanwhile, Office of Civil Defense Administrator Glenn J. Rabonza said that he was instructed by President Arroyo to intensify the dissemination of information on government’s contingency measures in the face of increased volcanic activity on Mt. Bulusan.

"So far, there is no need to evacuate the residents in the area,’’ Rabonza said, referring to at least 5,000 residents in six barangays just outside the four-kilometer permanent danger zone.

Rabonza said contingency measures are focused on the possible health risks posed by ash fall.

He said local health officials in the area have been alerted to the possible adverse effects of ash fall.

He said that the Provincial Disaster Response officials of Sorsogon had been holding evacuation drills for residents in areas that will likely be affected in case of a major eruption.

The NDCC has distributed 1,000 face masks to residents in the vicinity of Mt. Bulusan as a precaution against respiratory diseases.

News reports said that a man had died from a respiratory ailment allegedly triggered by ash fall.

Meanwhile, Phivolcs director Dr. Renato U. Solidum Jr. said Mt. Bulusan remains at Alert Level 2 while the danger zone is still at four kilometers from the volcano.

Phivolcs said Alert Level 2 indicates a moderate level of volcanic unrest with steam/gas activity and sporadic explosions that are usually accompanied by an increase in earthquake activity.

The ash fall on yesterday’s early morning explosion was blown to the northeastern side of Mt. Bulusan, Solidum said.

"There is no reason to panic. Residents are always advised to monitor advisories from government authorities for them to determine if the alert level has been raised and evacuation is already needed,’’ the Phivolcs chief added.

Nonetheless, Phivolcs advised residents to prepare face masks, towels and handkerchiefs to prevent respiratory problems in the event of ashfall.

Phivolcs also asked residents to always clear their homes and surroundings of ash debris to maintain cleanliness and prevent the spread of diseases.

NDCC authorities also advised residents to wear sunglasses outdoors as a protection against possible eye infection.

Solidum said that there is no sign of a possibility of a forthcoming major eruption of the volcano that sits some 1,559 meters above sea level.
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 17, 2006 10:32 am    Post subject: Mayon Volcano eruption seen as lava, tremors increase Reply with quote

Mayon Volcano eruption seen as lava, tremors increase


By Bullit Marquez
Associated Press
Last updated 05:54pm (Mla time) 07/17/2006


LEGASPI CITY -- (UPDATE) Red-hot lava poured down the slopes of Mayon volcano, accompanied by more tremors, for the fourth straight day Monday, indicating an explosive eruption may occur soon, scientists said.

The government, meanwhile, assured residents that evacuation plans were in place in case of a major eruption, although authorities for time being ruled out raising the alert level from two notches below the highest.

The silent, steady flow of lava and debris on the 2,474-meter (8,118-foot) mountain, famous for its near-perfect cone, has reached 800 meters (2,624 feet) down the summit since Friday, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology said.

Gleaming in the dark and steaming during the day, the advancing lava and cascading rocks were accompanied by 314 tremors in the past 24 hours, significantly higher than the 111 tremors the previous day, the institute said.

"The increased seismic activity, relatively fast lava extrusion rate and high sulfur dioxide emission rate indicate heightened unrest of the volcano, which could lead to explosive eruption," it said.

Officials had earlier estimated a hazardous eruption could occur within weeks.

Authorities have extended a six-kilometer (3.7-mile) danger zone around the peak of the volcano to seven kilometers (four miles) on the southeastern slope, where most of the lava and other debris have been rolling down.

On the streets of Legaspi City, the capital of Albay province near the volcano, about 340 kilometers (210 miles) southeast of Manila, it was business as usual as people went about their lives.

In the evenings, residents and tourists gathered at a hillside to gaze at the flowing lava.

Presidential spokesman Ignacio Bunye said Monday the National Disaster Coordinating Council and local authorities "are on top of all disaster preparedness measures to ensure the safety of the residents who may be directly affected by the volcanic activity."

Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1,200 people and buried a town in mud. A 1993 eruption killed 79.

The Philippines is in the Pacific "Ring of Fire," where volcanic activity and earthquakes are common.

In 1991, Mount Pinatubo exploded in the northern Philippines in one of the world's biggest volcanic eruptions of the 20th century, killing about 800 people.
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 28, 2006 12:17 pm    Post subject: New Type of Volcano Pops Up Reply with quote

New Type of Volcano Pops Up

By Sara Goudarzi
LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 28 July 2006
08:58 am ET



A series of mysterious eruptions in the western Pacific could be caused by a new type of volcano, a new study suggests.

Three processes are responsible for the formation of volcanoes on Earth, according to theories:

The planet's tectonic plates, which move around something like broken eggshells on water, can move away from each other, allowing magma to seep up.
The plates can also move towards each other, forcing eruptions.
Plumes of magma well up from deep inside the Earth.
In the July 28 issue of the journal Science, researchers report the discovery of tiny active volcanoes on the Pacific Plate that aren't caused by any of these mechanisms.

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http://www.livescience.com/for....._spot.html
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PostPosted: Fri Aug 04, 2006 7:37 am    Post subject: Mayon spews 12,500 tons of sulfur dioxide daily Reply with quote

Mayon spews 12,500 tons of sulfur dioxide daily
Inquirer
Last updated 03:28am (Mla time) 08/01/2006

Published on Page A13 of the August 1, 2006 issue of the Philippine Daily Inquirer

LEGAZPI CITY—Mayon Volcano showed a record high sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate of 12,548 tons per day, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology said yesterday.

Meanwhile, continued lava flow has reached 5.6 km from the crater.

In its Sunday bulletin, the Phivolcs predicted the lava trail to breach the 6-km danger zone on Tuesday or Wednesday—which might devastate crops cultivated by farmers who live beyond the area.

Lesty Saquilon, science research specialist of Phivolcs-Manila, said the S02 emission rate is a result of magma degassing near the crater.

Eruption

However, he said it was only one of the parameters and was not yet enough basis to indicate a shift from the currently “mild and quiet” eruption to “hazardous and explosive.”

The Phivolcs yesterday warned villagers living within the shadow of the 2,474-meter Mayon of hazards associated with explosions either from the summit or from the advancing lava flow in the southeast as the volcano’s sides appeared to swell.

Volcanologists were also reviewing past eruptions to help interpret the ongoing volcanic restiveness, which started on July 14.

Saquilon said the current volcanic activity was seen to be similar to the 1978 “strombolian eruption” characterized by a quiet emission of lava.

It was also found to be similar to the first phase of the 1984 eruption.

The 5.6-km advancing lava trail, according to Saquilon, has now surpassed the distance recorded during the 2001 eruption, or just a little more than 4-km from the crater
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PostPosted: Thu Oct 05, 2006 9:23 am    Post subject: New Look at 20th Century's Most Powerful Volcanic Eruption Reply with quote

New Look at 20th Century's Most Powerful Volcanic Eruption

By Trudy E. Bell
Science@NASA
posted: 05 October 2006
08:47 am ET

In June 1912, Novarupta—one of a chain of volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula—erupted in what turned out to be the largest blast of the twentieth century. It was so powerful that it drained magma from under another volcano, Mount Katmai, six miles east, causing the summit of Katmai to collapse to form a caldera half a mile deep. Novarupta also expelled three cubic miles of magma and ash into the air, which fell to cover an area of 3,000 square miles more than a foot deep.

Despite the fact that the eruption was comparable to that of the far more famous eruption of Krakatau in Indonesia in 1883 and so near the continental United States, it was hardly known at the time because the area was so remote from English-speaking people.

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http://www.livescience.com/for.....india.html
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 22, 2006 11:15 am    Post subject: Icelandic volcano caused historic famine in Egypt, says Rutg Reply with quote

Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey
21 November 2006

Icelandic volcano caused historic famine in Egypt, says Rutgers-based team

NEW BRUNSWICK/PISCATAWAY, N.J. -- An environmental drama played out on the world stage in the late 18th century when a volcano killed 9,000 Icelanders and brought a famine to Egypt that reduced the population of the Nile valley by a sixth.

A study by three scientists from Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, and a collaborator from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, demonstrates a connection between these two widely separated events. The research, funded by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is the latest addition to NASA's Life on Earth series of Web features at: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/go....._nile.html

The investigators used a computer model developed by NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to trace atmospheric changes that followed the 1783 eruption of Laki in southern Iceland back to their point of origin. The study is the first to conclusively establish the linkage between high-latitude eruptions and the water supply in North Africa.

"Our findings may help us improve predictions of climate response following the next strong high-latitude eruption, specifically concerning changes in temperature and precipitation," said Rutgers researcher Luke Oman, first author on the study. "Given the sensitivity of these arid regions to reductions in rainfall, our predictions may ultimately allow society time to plan for the consequences and save lives."

Eruptions of volcanoes in the tropics are known to produce warmer winters in the northern hemisphere; however, the new study shows that volcanic influences also can flow north to south, generating an array of repercussions, including both hot and cold weather.

The authors present "new, strong evidence, from both observations and climate model simulations" that high-latitude eruptions have altered northern hemisphere atmospheric circulation in the summer following, with impacts extending deep into the tropics.

Oman, Alan Robock and Georgiy Stenchikov of Rutgers' department of environmental sciences in New Brunswick/Piscataway, and Thorvaldur Thordarson at the University of Edinburgh, published their Sept. 30 study in Geophysical Research Letters, now featured online by NASA.

In June 1783, the Laki volcano began a series of eruptions, regarded as the largest at high-latitude in the last 1,000 years. The eruptions produced three cubic miles of lava and more than 100 million tons of sulfur dioxide and toxic gases, killing vegetation, livestock and people.

These eruptions were followed by a drought in a swath across northern Africa, producing a very low flow in the Nile. Laki's far-flung effects were chronicled by the French scholar Constantin Volney and his friend Benjamin Franklin.

"The [annual Nile] inundation of 1783 was not sufficient, great part of the lands therefore could not be sown for want of being watered, and another part was in the same predicament for want of seed. In 1784, the Nile again did not rise to the favorable height, and the dearth immediately became excessive. Soon after the end of November, the famine carried off, at Cairo, nearly as many as the plague," wrote Volney as reported by Oman and his colleagues.

In the northern hemisphere, the summer of 1783 was chilly – the coldest in at least 500 years in some locations, according to tree ring data. Sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere kept the warmth of the sun from the Earth's surface.

While the computer linked these reduced northern hemisphere temperatures to Laki, it also connected the dots to a weak monsoon – the seasonal winds that bring the annual rains to southern Asia and northern Africa. The unusual cold in the North lessened the temperature contrast between the land and the oceans, upon which the monsoon winds rely for their development and strength.

The modeling showed significant warming that occurred in the region west to east across Africa to the southern Arabian Peninsula and on to India during the summer of 1783. With little or no monsoon, there were no clouds to bring rain for the rivers or shield the surface from evaporation. Little or no rain, no irrigating floods, no crops and no food – all conspired to bring about the situation Volney described, and all were traceable back to Laki.
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PostPosted: Tue Nov 28, 2006 7:45 am    Post subject: Deep-Sea Eruption Detected in Progress Reply with quote

Deep-Sea Eruption Detected in Progress

By LiveScience Staff

posted: 27 November 2006
04:24 pm ET

Scientists made their first discovery of a volcanic eruption in progress 1.5 miles below the surface of the Pacific Ocean.

The event was predicted at a site where earthquake activity had increased. The eruption was confirmed when eight of 12 seismometers deployed to the seafloor were apparently buried. Other similar projects had experienced a 98 percent success rate in recovering the devices, so scientists assumed the missing ones were covered by magma.

The eruption, in April, was reported recently in an online paper published by the journal Science. Geologist Maya Tolstoy of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, led the work.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/for.....ption.html
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PostPosted: Mon Feb 05, 2007 6:33 pm    Post subject: MU Researcher to Study Volcanism with Under-Ocean Sensors Reply with quote

Feb 05 2007

Katherine Kostiuk
Sr. Information Specialist

MU Researcher to Study Volcanism with Under-Ocean Sensors

By recording activity where it happens under water, sensors will capture rare data

COLUMBIA, Mo--Earthquakes and volcanic activity occur when the tectonic plates that make up Earth's surface move apart or converge. While this activity is relatively easy to observe on land, it's more difficult to observe under the ocean, where most of it occurs. A University of Missouri-Columbia researcher will soon undertake a study to learn more about this process by placing sensors on a mid-ocean ridge called the East Pacific Rise.

"Right now, we can only listen from land using seismometers, or in the oceans using hydrophones, and try to find out when there is activity in a mid-ocean ridge," said Marie-Helene Cormier, assistant professor of geological sciences in MU¿s College of Arts and Science. "We might not know for a few days, and then it might take at least a week to get a ship to the site. If we want to study what's happening, it's very difficult to get accurate and timely information. Our goal is to put sensors in place so that we can record activity as it is happening. When we recover our sensors, we'll be able to study what was happening during those moments."

In mid February, Cormier and her colleagues, Spahr Webb and Roger Buck of Columbia University, will place sensors on the seafloor in multiple positions along the East Pacific Rise southwest of Mexico. The sensors will measure and record changes in the pressure of the water column above them. Cormier said the pressure of the water is expected to decrease during ridge activity because magma flows up between the two plates, creating new seafloor and raising the height of the sensors by a few inches. She and her team will collect data from the sensors while they are in place until they are removed from the ocean floor in 2009 or 2010. MU undergraduate students are expected to accompany Cormier on the research mission to learn more about geology and marine research.

"We expect there will be activity in this area while the sensors are there," Cormier said. "We'll measure, use computer models and compare data of the seascape from previous missions to this area to learn more about what's happening."

The data from this study could help scientists better understand what happens when tectonic plates move apart. This activity can cause underwater volcanic eruptions and earthquakes that result in the cycling of large quantities of seawater through the ocean floor, creating a nutrient-rich environment for bacteria and microorganisms. Cormier said the new magma and heat that come from below the earth's surface attract organisms to the new nutrient-rich, warm waters that are expelled from the seafloor.

"We want to understand more about what's happening under the oceans," Cormier said. "We can look at maps of Earth and see many details about the landforms above sea level, but we don't know nearly as much about what's under the ocean. Seventy percent of our land is under the ocean, so it's important to map out what landforms there are and understand what's happening there."
This research is supported by a National Science Foundation (NSF) grant. Through its "Research Experience for Undergraduates" initiative, the NSF also has approved some funds to assist the undergraduate students in their participation in the expedition.
-30-

For more information about marine geology, see www.ridge2000.org and www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov.
For information on specific topics:
Coordination of various experiments: http://www.ridge2000.org/scien.....nation.php
Detection of a new volcanic eruption in study area earlier this year: http://www.ridge2000.org/scien.....ivity.html
The "RIDGE 2000 Initiative," which oversees most of the expeditions to mid-ocean ridges that are funded by the National Science Foundation: http://www.ridge2000.org
The research vessel ATLANTIS that will be used: http://www.whoi.edu/marops/res.....s/atlantis
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 23, 2007 8:58 am    Post subject: Lightning Strikes from the Mouths of Volcanoes Reply with quote

Lightning Strikes from the Mouths of Volcanoes

By Andrea Thompson
LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 22 February 2007
02:00 pm ET

Volcanoes can trigger earthquakes, avalanches and devastating lava flows. Add to this list lightning, which has now been detected striking from the mouth of a mountainous beast.

A new study reveals the first direct observations of this well-known but poorly understood volcano-electrical phenomenon.

“Lightning is often seen during [a] volcanic eruption,” said study author Ronald Thomas of New Mexico Tech. “It occurs mostly during the big part of the eruption, when there are big volcanic plumes being produced.”

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/for.....tning.html
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PostPosted: Tue Mar 06, 2007 7:22 am    Post subject: Geologists reveal secrets behind supervolcano eruption Reply with quote

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
5 March 2007

Geologists reveal secrets behind supervolcano eruption

Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have discovered what likely triggered the eruption of a "supervolcano" that coated much of the western half of the United States with ash fallout 760,000 years ago.

Using a new technique developed at Rensselaer, the team determined that there was a massive injection of hot magma underneath the surface of what is now the Long Valley Caldera in California some time within 100 years of the gigantic volcano’s eruption. The findings suggest that this introduction of hot melt led to the immense eruption that formed one of the world’s largest volcanic craters or calderas.

The research, which is featured in the March 2007 edition of the journal Geology, sheds light on what causes these large-scale, explosive eruptions, and it could help geologists develop methods to predict such eruptions in the future, according to David Wark, research professor of earth and environmental sciences at Rensselaer and lead author of the paper.

The 20-mile-long Long Valley Caldera was created when the supervolcano erupted. The geologists focused their efforts on Bishop Tuff, an expanse of rock that was built up as the hot ash cooled following the eruption. The researchers studied the distribution of titanium in quartz crystals in samples taken from Bishop Tuff.

A team from Rensselaer previously discovered that trace levels of titanium can be analyzed to determine the temperature at which the quartz crystallized. By monitoring titanium, Wark and his colleagues confirmed that the outer rims of the quartz had formed at a much hotter temperature than the crystal interiors. The researchers concluded that after the interiors of the quartz crystals had grown, the magma system was "recharged" with an injection of fresh, hot melt. This caused the quartz to partly dissolve, before starting to crystallize again at a much higher temperature.

Analyses of titanium also revealed that the high-temperature rim-growth must have taken place within only 100 years of the massive volcano’s eruption. This suggests that the magma recharge so affected the physical properties of the magma chamber that it caused the supervolcano to erupt and blanket thousands of square miles with searing ash.

"The Long Valley Caldera has been widely studied, but by utilizing titanium in quartz crystals as a geothermometer we were able to provide new insight into the reasons for its last huge eruption," Wark said. "This research will help geologists understand how supervolcanoes work and what may cause them to erupt, and this in turn may someday help predict future eruptions."

###
The research was funded through a grant from the National Science Foundation.

Wark was assisted in his research by Wes Hildreth of the U.S. Geological Survey; Frank Spear, Rensselaer professor of earth and environmental sciences and department chair; Bruce Watson, Institute Professor at Rensselaer, and Daniele Cherniak, research associate professor of earth and environmental sciences at Rensselaer.

About Rensselaer

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, founded in 1824, is the nation’s oldest technological university. The university offers bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees in engineering, the sciences, information technology, architecture, management, and the humanities and social sciences. Institute programs serve undergraduates, graduate students, and working professionals around the world. Rensselaer faculty are known for pre-eminence in research conducted in a wide range of fields, with particular emphasis in biotechnology, nanotechnology, information technology, and the media arts and technology. The Institute is well known for its success in the transfer of technology from the laboratory to the marketplace so that new discoveries and inventions benefit human life, protect the environment, and strengthen economic development.
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 15, 2007 7:15 am    Post subject: Surprising Activity Discovered at Yellowstone Supervolcano Reply with quote

Surprising Activity Discovered at Yellowstone Supervolcano

By Sara Goudarzi
LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 14 March 2007
09:05 am ET

Supervolcanoes can sleep for centuries or millennia before producing incredibly massive eruptions that can drop ash across an entire continent. One of the largest supervolcanoes in the world lies beneath Yellowstone National Park, which spans parts of Wyoming, Montana and Idaho.

Though the Yellowstone system is active and expected to eventually blow its top, scientists don’t think it will erupt any time soon.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/for.....shape.html
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PostPosted: Tue Mar 27, 2007 10:50 am    Post subject: Mount St. Helens Can't Stop Growing Reply with quote

Mount St. Helens Can't Stop Growing

By The Associated Press

posted: 27 March 2007
10:03 am ET

VANCOUVER, Wash. (AP) — Mount St. Helens may be following the example of Kilauea in Hawaii with magma being replaced from a reservoir beneath the volcano as fast as it emerges as lava at the surface, scientists say.

While the two volcanoes are different in many respects, St. Helens appears to have become an “open system'' as its domebuilding eruption that began in the fall of 2004 continues at a pace that has been unchanged for the past year, said Daniel Dzurisin, a geologist at the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory.

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http://www.livescience.com/for.....owing.html
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PostPosted: Tue Apr 10, 2007 9:09 am    Post subject: NASA data show earthquakes may quickly boost regional volcan Reply with quote

NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
10 April 2007

NASA data show earthquakes may quickly boost regional volcanoes

Scientists using NASA satellite data have found strong evidence that a major earthquake can lead to a nearly immediate increase in regional volcanic activity.

The intensity of two ongoing volcanic eruptions on Indonesia’s Java Island increased sharply three days following a powerful, 6.4-magnitude earthquake on the island in May 2006. The increased volcanic activity persisted for about nine days.

"During this period, we found clear evidence that the earthquake caused both volcanoes to release greater amounts of heat, and lava emission surged to two to three times higher than prior to the tremor," said study lead author Andrew Harris, University of Hawaii, Honolulu. The research was recently published in the American Geophysical Union's Geophysical Research Letters.

While scientists have long debated whether earthquakes can trigger new volcanic eruptions, this study linked an earthquake to enhanced volcanic activity at two ongoing eruptions that were being closely monitored by satellite-based sensors on a daily basis.

At the time of the earthquake, each volcano was being checked for changes in heat output by satellite sensors as part of a routine global "hot spot" monitoring effort that uses near real-time satellite data from NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites.

Maps of worldwide hot spot activity are created with data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on these satellites, pinpointing locations where surface temperatures are much hotter than their surroundings. The scientists combined these data with other details about the Indonesian volcanoes gathered by the satellites to analyze temperature and lava output rates at both volcanoes over a 35-day period spanning the earthquake.

The two volcanoes, Merapi and Semeru, are about 260 kilometers (162 miles) apart and roughly 50 kilometers (31 miles) north and 280 kilometers (174 miles) east of the earthquake epicenter, respectively. Given these distances, the researchers believe underground stresses from the earthquake's seismic waves likely acted to pump magma -- molten rock beneath the surface -- into the conduit to the surface, ultimately increasing eruption rates.

"The responses at Merapi and Semeru lagged about three days behind the triggering earthquake, which may reflect the time it took the change felt by magma residing at deeper levels to be transmitted to the surface," said Harris.

The researchers concluded that regional earthquake events have sufficient power to modify the intensity of activity at ongoing eruptions, although they may not always be able to trigger new volcanic eruptions.

They also noted that the Java earthquake had a significant influence on the volcanoes for a relatively short period of several days, suggesting that catching the effect of a quake on an eruption requires careful observation. "Eruptions must be closely and continuously monitored in the days immediately before, during and after an earthquake if we are to link any earthquake with enhanced volcanic activity," added Harris.

Satellite monitoring may be able to play a predictive role in eruptions, rather than just its more traditional responsive role, according to the study. Instruments on today's advanced satellites are providing new and considerably more data to help scientists better track and understand volcanic eruptions.

"The satellite data we have now -- from MODIS, NASA's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer and the Landsat-7 satellite -- give us fresh insights into the behavior of volcanic systems around the entire globe," said Harris. "This worldwide perspective would not have been possible using ground-based sensors; there are too many unmonitored sectors and periods. We simply could not have uncovered our results without the continuous and global data provided by MODIS."

The researchers are currently reviewing older MODIS hot spot data, which extends back to 2000, to uncover additional earthquake-induced responses at erupting volcanoes in hope of identifying patterns that might be used to build a predictive model for forecasting earthquake-induced changes in activity at erupting volcanoes.

###
http://www.nasa.gov/centers/go.....lcano.html

Mike Bettwy
Goddard Space Flight Center
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PostPosted: Wed Apr 18, 2007 7:54 pm    Post subject: Long Dormant Volcano Erupts, Thousands Flee Reply with quote

Long Dormant Volcano Erupts, Thousands Flee

By Fernando Vergara
Associated Press
posted: 18 April 2007
06:13 pm ET

NEIVA, Colombia (AP) — Thousands of people were evacuated after a long-dormant volcano erupted late Tuesday and again early Wednesday, provoking avalanches and floods that swept away houses and bridges.

The Nevado del Huila volcano's eruptions were its first on record since Colombia was colonized by the Spanish 500 years ago.

There are about 10,000 people living in the area around the volcano, and about 3,500 had been evacuated, Luz Amanda Pulido, director of the national disaster office, told The Associated Press after flying over the volcano in southwest Colombia.

There were no reports of deaths or injuries.

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http://www.livescience.com/for.....lcano.html
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PostPosted: Fri Apr 27, 2007 8:54 am    Post subject: Volcanoes Triggered Ancient Warming Event Reply with quote

Volcanoes Triggered Ancient Warming Event

By Ker Than
LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 26 April 2007
02:13 pm ET



The same volcanic eruptions that sundered Greenland from Western Europe and created Iceland also triggered intense global warming 55 million years ago, scientists say.

“There has been evidence in the marine record of this period of global warming, and evidence in the geologic record of the eruptions at roughly the same time,” said study team member Robert Duncan, an oceanic scientist at Oregon State University, “but until now there has been no direct link between the two.”

During the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), massive amounts of greenhouse gases were injected into the oceans and atmosphere, causing global sea surface temperatures to rise by up to 10 degrees Fahrenheit.

The event changed global rainfall patterns, broiled and acidified the oceans, and killed up to 50 percent of the world’s deep-sea organisms. The warm climate also opened up new migration routes for horses and other mammals into North America and might have even fueled early primate evolution.

The PETM took roughly 100,000 years to peak, and it was another 100,000 years or so before the climate recovered. What triggered the PETM has been a topic of intense speculation by scientists. Theories have ranged from the extensive burning of peat and coal deposits to an impact by a carbon-rich comet

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http://www.livescience.com/for.....lcano.html
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 05, 2007 12:12 pm    Post subject: Kamchatka volcano blows its top Reply with quote

University of Alaska Fairbanks
4 July 2007


Kamchatka volcano blows its top
Students learn from largest eruption in North Pacific


FAIRBANKS, Alaska -- Klyuchevskoy (pronounced Kloo-shef-skoy), a stratovolcano located in the north central region of the Kamchatka Peninsula, is blasting ash up to 32,000 feet in the air, and has diverted air traffic headed toward the Far East. This is the largest eruption to occur in the North Pacific in a decade, and is providing students at the University of Alaska Fairbanks a unique opportunity to collaborate with scientists, as well as state and federal agencies.

For the full article:

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_.....070407.php
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