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(Anatomy) (Health) Teeth: Cranberries 'Block Tooth Decay'

 
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PostPosted: Sat Nov 26, 2005 8:35 am    Post subject: (Anatomy) (Health) Teeth: Cranberries 'Block Tooth Decay' Reply with quote






Cranberries 'block tooth decay'
BBC News UK edition
Saturday, 26 November 2005, 00:05 GMT

Cranberries may help prevent tooth decay and cavities, research suggests.
Scientists have found a compound in the fruit can stop bacteria from
clinging to the teeth, blocking the formation of damaging plaque deposits.

However, researcher Dr Hyuan Koo warned many cranberry-containing
products were loaded with sugar and consuming large amounts could lead
to tooth decay.

The study, by the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York, will
be published in Caries Research.

Dr Koo said the goal was to extract the berry's protective properties and
add them to toothpaste or mouthwash.

He said it was still unclear why the fruit was so effective at protecting the
teeth.

Cranberries have previously been found to reduce the risk of urinary tract
infections that are also caused by harmful bacteria.

Dr Koo said people should not eat or drink excessive amounts of
cranberry-containing products in an attempt to improve their dental
health.

Added sugar

He said many cranberry products contained large amounts of sugar,
which is the leading cause of tooth decay.

In addition, the fruit contains a natural acid that can strip away essential
minerals in the teeth.

During the study, researchers coated a synthetic material that acts like
tooth enamel, called hydroxyapatite, with cranberry juice.

They then applied the cavity-causing bacteria streptococcus mutans, or
plaque.

S. mutans creates cavities by eating sugars and then excreting acids that
cause dental decay.

Plaque is a gooey substance formed by bacteria from bits of food, saliva,
and acid.

It covers the tooth and gives bacteria a safe haven to munch on sugar,
and churn out more damaging acid.

The results, which took about seven months to obtain, showed cranberries
were about 80% effective in protecting teeth.

Blocked enzymes

Not only were new bacteria prevented from sticking to the teeth, the
cranberry compound also appeared to block bacterial enzymes that play a
key role in plaque formation.

Dr Koo said more laboratory tests were needed to try to isolate the active
compounds before clinical trials with patients can be considered.

He said: "Scientists believe that one of the main ways that cranberries
prevent urinary tract infections is by inhibiting the adherence of
pathogens on the surface of the bladder.

"Perhaps the same is true in the mouth, where bacteria use adhesion
molecules to hold onto teeth."

Dr Nigel Carter, chief executive of the British Dental Health Foundation,
said: "Cranberries are naturally very acidic, while manufacturers also
tend to add sugar to cranberry products.

"Every time you eat or drink something acidic the enamel on your teeth is
softened temporarily.

"If given time to recover, then your saliva will neutralise this acidity in
your mouth and restore it to its natural balance.

"However, if this attack happens too often the mouth does not have the
chance to repair itself and tiny particles of enamel can be brushed away.
This is called erosion.

"Tooth decay is caused by sugar, and erosion can leave you even more
open to this.

"So while cranberries can be enjoyed, they should be limited to mealtimes
only to avoid potential problems."

*************************************************************
Questions to explore further this topic:

What are cranberries?

http://healthyherbs.about.com/.....nberry.htm

According to some scientists, how do berries prevent infection?


http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.....p;dbid=145
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/1412586.stm
http://www.webmd.com/content/article/94/103003.htm
http://www.cranberryinstitute......101405.htm

Why are berries good for one's health?

http://www.newstarget.com/001505.html

Here are some lessons on teeth:

http://www.healthyteeth.org/to.....rowth.html
http://www.healthyteeth.org/to.....erent.html
http://www.healthyteeth.org/toothGrowth/parts.html

What is tooth decay?

http://www.colgate.com/app/Col.....aries.cvsp
http://www.colgate.com/app/Col.....ities.cvsp
http://www.colgate.com/app/Col.....ities.cvsp
http://www.colgate.com/app/Col.....Mouth.cvsp
http://www.colgate.com/app/Col.....ecays.cvsp

How does one take care of one's teeth?

http://www.adha.org/oralhealth/brushing.htm
http://www.healthyteeth.org/prevention/5steps.html
http://kidshealth.org/kid/stay.....teeth.html


GAMES

http://www.ada.org/public/games/games.asp
http://www.healthyteeth.org/quiz/index.html
http://www.colgate.com/app/Col.....Saver.cvsp
http://www.cunningdental.com/fun-n-games.html


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 4:32 pm; edited 2 times in total
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 17, 2006 6:52 pm    Post subject: Protein-coated dental implants could improve bone regenerati Reply with quote

Protein-coated dental implants could improve bone regeneration
Jennifer Hilliard
July 17, 2006

Titanium dental implants coated with proteins that induce bone formation may be a key advancement in treating tooth loss due to gum disease, researchers say.

In laboratory tests, MCG researchers applied a protein onto implants that directs endogenous stem cells to become bone-forming cells. The result was a nearly complete regeneration of lost tissue, says Dr. Ulf Wikesjö, a professor of periodontics in MCG’s School of Dentistry.

Loss of teeth and bone is a common and devastating result of gum disease.

Dr. Wikesjö, who came to MCG this year from Temple University in Philadelphia, is researching wound-healing and tissue regeneration with a $1.4 million grant from Nobel Biocare, a leading manufacturer of dental implants and equipment.

Finding the key to improved regeneration is like piecing together a puzzle, Dr. Wikesjö says.

“For the past 20 years, there has been a quest to regenerate tissues around teeth that are lost due to periodontal disease,” he says. “I’ve looked at multiple approaches to achieve regeneration, including bone grafts, root conditioning and membrane devices for directed tissue growth, all resulting in some regeneration. Where we had to look was at the commonalities among these treatments.”

Dr. Wikesjö and his colleagues found that any regeneration requires two characteristics: a stable wound and space for the regenerated tissue to grow during the initial stages of healing.

“If these components are in place, regeneration of the tissues around the tooth may occur within a week or two,” he says. “After that, it’s a matter of the wound maturing – going through the various stages of healing that we’re already familiar with.”

By experimenting with treatments and discerning their effect on healing bone defects, they found some – including some in use today – that actually hinder tissue regeneration.

“Some biomaterials like hydroxyapatite particles, which are chemically similar to the mineral component of bone, may actually interfere with regeneration,” Dr. Wikesjö says. “They may not resorb quickly enough and may block the space for new tissue to grow into.”

The experiments helped researchers narrow down possible treatments to the use of proteins that directed stem cells to become bone-forming cells. Those proteins – called bone morpheonetic proteins – have already shown promise as a regeneration therapy for craniofacial reconstruction.

“None of us had any idea at the time how or if those proteins could be useful in treating tooth loss,” Dr. Wikesjö says.

To find out, researchers placed the proteins around teeth and implants in animal models.

Around teeth, the bone-forming cells grew into existing bone and eventually morphed into bone themselves. However, the root of the tooth was destroyed by the replacement bone. That process impeded regeneration of other essential tissues around the tooth.

Applying the protein to implants proved more beneficial.

“There was almost complete regeneration,” he says. “The generated bone bonded with the implant’s surface and, eventually, existing bone in the gums. That allowed for the regeneration of gum tissues.”

The next step is clinical trials of an implant coated with the proteins, which Dr. Wikesjö hopes to start this summer.

“There are still things we need to learn. In some cases, the protein may rapidly release from the implant, and other times, there appears to be a more gradual release,” Dr. Wikesjö says. “We need to find out what factors cause that. In the end, we may not need to use much protein to make the implant effective. Those are things we’re looking at now.”
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PostPosted: Mon Aug 07, 2006 10:45 am    Post subject: Bad Breath: Causes and Cures Reply with quote

Bad Breath: Causes and Cures

By Corey Binns
Special to LiveScience
posted: 07 August 2006
08:47 am ET



A whiff of bad breath can hint at matters more serious than a meal of onions and garlic or a skipped tooth brushing. Foul exhalations warn of gum disease, dry mouth, and other unhealthy medical conditions.

Unfortunately, even the healthiest of bodies suffer from morning breath.

"Nobody's going to wake up in the morning with flowers in their mouth," said Walter Bretz, an associate professor at New York University College of Dentistry.

Cavities and tongues with deep grooves serve as prime reservoirs for bacteria we commonly call plaque. The bacteria produces volatile sulphur compounds that give a person bad breath, or halitosis. A malodorous mouth can be a warning sign of gum disease, which is caused by plaque.

Brushing your teeth, and even your tongue, helps scrub away the bad bacteria.


For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....reath.html
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PostPosted: Mon Sep 11, 2006 1:49 pm    Post subject: Compounds in cranberry juice show promise as alternatives to Reply with quote

Worcester Polytechnic Institute
10 September 2006

Compounds in cranberry juice show promise as alternatives to antibiotics

A group of tannins found primarily in cranberries can transform E. coli bacteria, a class of microorganisms responsible for a host of human illnesses, including urinary tract infections, in ways that render them unable to initiate an infection.
WORCESTER, Mass. – September 8, 2006 – Compounds in cranberry juice have the ability to change E. coli bacteria, a class of microorganisms responsible for a host of human illnesses (everything from kidney infections to gastroenteritis to tooth decay), in ways that render them unable to initiate an infection. The results of this new research by scientists at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) suggest that the cranberry may provide an alternative to antibiotics, particularly for combating E. coli bacteria that have become resistant to conventional treatment.

The new findings, which will be presented on Sunday, Sept. 10, at the annual meeting of the American Chemical Society in San Francisco, for the first time begin to paint a detailed picture of the biochemical mechanisms that may underlie a number of beneficial health effects of cranberry juice that have been reported in other studies over the years.

Many of those studies have focused on the ability of cranberry juice to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs), which each year affect eight million people–mostly women, the elderly, and infants--resulting in $1.6 billion in health care costs. Until now, scientists have not understood exactly how cranberry juice prevents UTIs and other bacterial infections, though they have suspected that compounds in the juice somehow prevent bacteria from adhering to the lining of the urinary tract. The new findings reveal how the compounds interfere with adhesion at the molecular level.

The new results will be incorporated in two presentations during a session that runs from 8:30 to 11:40 a.m. in the Windsor Room of the Sir Francis Drake Hotel.

The research, by Terri Camesano, associate professor of chemical engineering at WPI, and graduate students Yatao Liu and Paola Pinzon-Arango, and funded, in part, by the National Science Foundation, shows that a group of tannins (called proanthocyanidins) found primarily in cranberries affect E. coli in three devastating ways, all of which prevent the bacteria from adhering to cells in the body, a necessary first step in all infections:


They change the shape of the bacteria from rods to spheres.


They alter their cell membranes.


They make it difficult for bacteria to make contact with cells, or from latching on to them should they get close enough.

For most of these effects, the impact on bacteria was stronger the higher the concentration of either cranberry juice or the tannins, suggesting that whole cranberry products and juice that has not been highly diluted may have the greatest health effects.

The new results build on previously published work, in which Camesano and her team showed that cranberry juice causes tiny tendrils (known as fimbriae) on the surface of the type of E. coli bacteria responsible for the most serious types of UTIs to become compressed. Since the fimbriae make it possible for the bacteria to bind tightly to the lining of the urinary tract, the change in shape greatly reduces the ability of the bacteria to stay put long enough to initiate an infection.

More recently, Camesano and Liu have shown that chemical changes caused by cranberry juice also create an energy barrier that keeps the bacteria from getting close to the urinary tract lining in the first place.

New work by Camesano and Pinzon-Arango shows that cranberry juice can transform E. coli bacteria in even more radical ways. The researchers grew E. coli over extended periods in solutions containing various concentrations of either cranberry juice or tannins. Over time, the normally rod-shaped bacteria became spherical--a transformation that has never before been observed in E. coli.

Remarkably, the E. coli bacteria, all of which fall into a class called gram-negative bacteria, began behaving like gram-positive bacteria--another never-before-seen phenomenon. Since gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria differ primarily in the structure of their cell membranes, the results suggest that the tannins in cranberry juice can alter the membranes of E. coli.

A final, more preliminary result that will be presented at the ACS meeting suggests that E. coli bacteria exposed to cranberry juice appear to lose the ability to secrete indole, a molecule involved in a form of bacterial communication called quorum sensing. E. coli use quorum sensing to determine when there are enough bacteria present at a certain location to initiate a successful infection.

"We are beginning to get a picture of cranberry juice and, in particular, the tannins found in cranberries as, potentially potent antibacterial agents," Camesano says. "These results are surprising and intriguing, particularly given the increasing concern about the growing resistance of certain disease-causing bacteria to antibiotics."
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PostPosted: Thu Sep 21, 2006 8:04 pm    Post subject: This is Your Mouth on Meth Reply with quote

This is Your Mouth on Meth

By Jeanna Bryner
LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 21 September 2006
02:52 pm ET



The conventional “this is your brain on drugs” image showing a frying pan and sizzling egg may be outdated. Today’s anti-drug ads are keeping up with the times.

Case in point is a series of “modern” ads showing meth-addicted teens in horrific settings: a malnourished teen standing in the shower picking at scabs all over her body until they bleed. Apparently, she thought they were bugs crawling beneath her skin.

Today, the American Dental Association (ADA) warned users, and potential users, about the perils of methamphetamine to a healthy smile. One consequence of taking the drug called “meth mouth” could lead to rampant tooth decay and teeth that are blackened, rotting, crumbling or falling apart [image], said ADA president Robert M. Brandjord.

"Meth mouth robs people, especially young people of their teeth and frequently leads to full-mouth extractions and a lifetime of wearing dentures," Brandjord said.

For the full article and images:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....mouth.html
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PostPosted: Fri Oct 20, 2006 10:13 am    Post subject: ADA applauds health claim for fluoridated bottled water Reply with quote

American Dental Association
20 October 2006

ADA applauds health claim for fluoridated bottled water

CHICAGO (Oct. 20, 2006) -- The American Dental Association (ADA) supports the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) decision to allow bottlers to claim that fluoridated water may reduce the risk of dental cavities or tooth decay.

"Whether you drink fluoridated water from the tap or buy it in a bottle, you're doing the right thing for your oral health," says ADA executive director James B. Bramson, D.D.S. "Thanks to the FDA's decision, bottlers can now claim what dentists have long known--that optimally fluoridated water helps prevent tooth decay."

The ADA also agrees with the FDA that this health claim is not intended for use on bottled water marketed to infants for whom lesser amounts of fluoride are appropriate.

According to the FDA's Center for Food Safety and applied Nutrition, "the food eligible to bear the claim is bottled water…containing greater than 0.6 and up to 1.0 mg/L total fluoride, and meeting all general requirements for health claims…."

The American Dental Association (ADA) continues to endorse fluoridation of community water supplies as safe and effective for preventing tooth decay. This support has been the Association's position since policy was first adopted in 1950. Approximately 162 million people in the United States are served by public water systems that are fluoridated. The ADA, along with state and local dental societies, continues to work with federal, state, and local agencies to increase the number of communities benefiting from water fluoridation.
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PostPosted: Sat Nov 25, 2006 7:51 am    Post subject: Putting the Squeeze on Toothpaste Reply with quote

Putting the Squeeze on Toothpaste
25 November 2006
Emily Sohn

There's nothing scientific about the way I shop for toothpaste. One brand happens to have the same name as the street on which I grew up. So, that's the kind I buy.

Quite a bit of science, however, goes into making toothpaste. Every year, toothpaste companies spend millions of dollars looking for ways to make products that taste better, make your teeth cleaner, and keep you coming back for more.

For the full article:

http://www.sciencenewsforkids......ature1.asp
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PostPosted: Wed Mar 21, 2007 6:59 am    Post subject: Root Beer May Be "Safest" Soft Drink for Teeth Reply with quote

Root Beer May Be "Safest" Soft Drink for Teeth
Academy of General Dentistry

CHICAGO (March 16, 2007) – Exposing teeth to soft drinks, even for a short period of time, causes dental erosion—and prolonged exposure can lead to significant enamel loss. Root beer products, however, are non-carbonated and do not contain the acids that harm teeth, according to a study in the March/April 2007 issue of General Dentistry, the AGD’s clinical, peer-reviewed journal. That might be something to consider during the next visit to the grocery store.

Consumers often consider soft drinks to be harmless, believing that the only concern is sugar content. Most choose to consume “diet” drinks to alleviate this concern. However, diet drinks contain phosphoric acid and/or citric acid and still cause dental erosion—though considerably less than their sugared counterparts.

“Drinking any type of soft drink poses risk to the health of your teeth,” says AGD spokesperson Kenton Ross, DMD, FAGD. Dr. Ross recommends that patients consume fewer soft drinks by limiting their intake to meals. He also advises patients to drink with a straw, which will reduce soda’s contact with teeth.

“My patients are shocked to hear that many of the soft drinks they consume battery acid,” Dr. Ross explains. For example, one type of cola ranked 2.39 on the acid
scale, compared to battery acid which is 1.0.

Researchers concluded that non-colas cause a greater amount of erosion than colas. Citric acid is the predominant acid in non-cola drinks and is a major factor in why non-cola drinks are especially erosive. There is a significant difference between sugared and diet colas.

“The bottom line,” Dr. Ross stresses, “is that the acidity in all soft drinks is enough to damage your teeth and should be avoided.”

What is dental erosion?

Dental erosion involves loss of tooth structure.

Erosion refers to the action of the acid on the entire surface of the tooth.

Dental erosion and dental cavities are not exactly the same. Cavities and tooth decay tend to be isolated to cavity-prone areas such as in between teeth and in pits and grooves.
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PostPosted: Wed Mar 21, 2007 8:22 am    Post subject: How Dental Hygienists Could Save Your Life Reply with quote

How Dental Hygienists Could Save Your Life

By Corey Binns
Special to LiveScience
posted: 21 March 2007
09:13 am ET

More than just a pretty smile, clean teeth and gums are a sign of total body health. And those painful sessions with the dental hygienist could save your life, new findings suggest.

Most people know that the tedium of good oral hygiene—regular brushing, flossing and trips to the dentist's office—reduces tartar, plaque, cavities, gingivitis and bone loss and helps the breath smell like roses.

But recent research shows that diabetes, low birth weight babies and heart disease are also linked to gum and bone disease in the mouth that can be prevented by teeth cleanings. Treating gum disease might even prevent heart attacks, a new study suggests.

"Systemically, visits to the dentist and hygienist may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke and possibly heart attack, and can decrease the likelihood of tooth loss for diabetics," said Gwen Cohen-Brown, a dentist and lecturer for the New York State Department of Health.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....ealth.html
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 22, 2007 9:38 am    Post subject: Acids in Popular Sodas Erode Tooth Enamel Reply with quote

Acids in Popular Sodas Erode Tooth Enamel

By Robin Lloyd
LiveScience Senior Editor
posted: 21 March 2007
05:26 pm ET

Root beer could be the safest soft drink for your teeth, new research suggests, but many other popular diet and sugared sodas are nearly as corrosive to dental enamel as battery acid.

Prolonged exposure to soft drinks can lead to significant enamel loss, even though many people consider soft drinks to be harmless or just worry about their sugar content and the potential for putting on pounds, the study says.

The erosive potential of colas is 10 times that of fruit juices in just the first three minutes of drinking, a study last year showed. The latest research, published in Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) journal General Dentistry, reports that drinking any type of soft drink hurts teeth due to the citric acid and/or phosphoric acid in the beverages.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....teeth.html
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PostPosted: Sat Mar 31, 2007 7:28 am    Post subject: Chew for Health Reply with quote

Chew for Health
Emily Sohn

April 4, 2007

Most schools ban chewing gum, but in a few years they might consider changing that rule. Why? Scientists are finding evidence that gum chewing may be good for your health. It may even help boost your test scores.
This exciting research is just beginning. And in the meantime, companies are also experimenting with adding vitamins, minerals, medicines, and other substances that could give gum the power to cure headaches and fight everything from serious diseases to bad breath.

These enhanced gums are part of the growing number of foods and drinks that contain health-boosting ingredients. If you're already a gum fan, that's probably welcome news.

For the full article:

http://www.sciencenewsforkids......ature1.asp
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PostPosted: Tue May 08, 2007 8:18 am    Post subject: Fluoride Myths and Bad Baby Teeth Reply with quote

Fluoride Myths and Bad Baby Teeth
By Christopher Wanjek, LiveScience's Bad Medicine Columnist

posted: 08 May 2007 08:43 am ET

Nothing's cuter than a child who has lost his first baby tooth, unless this is quickly followed by the loss of several other teeth pulled because of cavities, leaving him with all the charm of a grinning hockey player.

That scenario might not be too far off. Tooth decay among children under age 5 is on the rise for the first time in 40 years, according to a massive and long-awaited government study presented last week at the American Association for Public Health Dentistry meeting in Denver.

The reason could be the increase in processed food children eat and a decrease in the fluoride they are exposed to, as kids drink more bottled water instead of fluoridated tap water , according to study lead Bruce Dye of the National Center for Health Statistics.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hea.....teeth.html
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 25, 2007 11:42 am    Post subject: Wine may combat tooth decay and upper respiratory tract dise Reply with quote

Wine may combat tooth decay and upper respiratory tract disease bacteria
25 June 2007
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Both red and white wine may have previously unknown health benefits at the very start of the journey described in that classic childhood food rhyme, “Through the lips and round the gums, look out stomach here it comes.” That’s the conclusion of a new study scheduled for the July 11 issue of ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, a bi-weekly publication.

Gabriella Gazzani and colleagues in Italy point out that previous studies suggested that moderate wine consumption has health benefits after reaching the stomach and digestion — in protecting against heart disease and cancer. In addition, wine’s antibacterial activity has been recognized since antiquity, when wine was used to treat infected wounds. Until now, however, scientists had not investigated whether wine could combat harmful oral bacteria, the researchers said.

Their study showed that red and white wine were effective in controlling the growth of several strains of streptococci bacteria that are involved in tooth decay, and some cases of sore throat. “Overall, our findings seem to indicate that wine can act as an effective antimicrobial agent against the tested pathogenic oral streptococci and might be active in caries and upper respiratory tract pathologies prevention,” the study states, noting that tests now are underway to determine wine’s effects on those diseases in humans.

ARTICLE #3 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
“Antibacterial Activity of Red and White Wine Against Oral Streptococci”

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PostPosted: Tue Jun 26, 2007 11:00 am    Post subject: Improper consumption of acidic foods could lead to destroyed Reply with quote

Academy of General Dentistry
25 June 2007

Improper consumption of acidic foods could lead to destroyed enamel

Expert shares ways to prevent and manage tooth erosion
Fruit, yogurt, citric and soft drinks, may seem like harmless snacks and beverages, but improper consumption and overuse may lead to devastating and permanent damage to teeth. It’s known as tooth erosion, the break down of tooth structure caused by the effect of acid on the teeth that leads to decay. According to David Bartlett, BDS, PhD, who will lead a discussion at the Academy of General Dentistry’s 55th annual meeting in San Diego, June 27-July 1, 2007, titled, “Acid Erosion-Why is it Important to My Patients"”, “Early diagnosis and prevention of the effects of tooth erosion are fundamental to keeping teeth healthy for life.”

“Sipping or holding acidic drinks in the mouth before swallowing increases the risk of erosion on dental enamel,” says Dr. Bartlett. Dental enamel is the thin, outer layer of hard tissue that helps maintain the tooth's structure and shape while protecting it from decay.

Soft drinks, which contain acids, break the tooth surfaces. These acids also damage tooth enamel over time by dissolving the mineral structure of teeth, thinning the teeth. Eventually, because of repeated exposure to acid, the tooth’s enamel will lose its shape and color and as the damage progresses; the underlying dentin, (which is the tissue that makes up the core of each tooth), becomes exposed causing the teeth to look yellow.

To prevent tooth erosion, Dr. Bartlett advises patients who eat or drink an acidic food or beverage to wait at least 20 minutes before brushing the teeth so as not to destroy the weakened enamel. He also suggests eating acidic foods within five minutes, instead of snacking on them throughout the day, and eating these foods just during meal times in order to minimize the amount of time the acid is on the teeth.

Also, frequently consuming and continual snacking of foods with a low pH (potential of hydrogen) value, such as fruit juices, pickles, fresh fruit, yogurt, honey and raisins can lead to irreversible dental erosion. It is important to also beware of habits such as lemon-sucking and swishing soda in the mouth. Doing this extends the amount of time that enamel and dentin are exposed to the acids and can increase the structural damage. But eating fruit as part of a balanced diet is good. Dr Bartlett says, “It’s not what you eat and drink that is important its how you consume acidic food”.

Dr. Bartlett also encourages patients to talk to their dentist about the use of dentin bonding to help prevent tooth erosion, a procedure he will share with attendees during his course at the AGD’s annual meeting. Dentin bonding is when the dentist paints a very thin layer (about the thickness of plastic cling film) which is painted on the surfaces of teeth showing signs of erosion. “Together, with dietary advice and daily desensitizing toothpaste, the aim is to prevent and treat early or moderate signs of erosion on the teeth,” says Dr. Bartlett. Early signs of tooth erosion consist of dentin hypersensitivity. In other words, if hot or cold foods and beverages cause pain or sensitivity this is an indication of tooth erosion. Dentists may also recommend daily use of an OTC fluoridated anti-hypersensitivity toothpaste with a neutral pH to help re-harden softened tooth enamel.

Dr. Bartlett will be one of more than 70 clinicians who will present the latest developments in oral health and technology during the AGD’s Annual Meeting & Exhibits. Dr. Bartlett’s course will be held on Thursday, June 28 from 1:00 p.m. to 2:45 p.m. PT.
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 26, 2007 1:39 pm    Post subject: Mice teeth explain the troubles with human wisdom teeth Reply with quote

University of Helsinki
26 September 2007

Mice teeth explain the troubles with human wisdom teeth

During evolution, many of a species’ properties are shaped by ecological interactions. This is readily evident in mammalian teeth, whose many features closely reflect what each species eats. However, for a long time scientists have suspected that genetic and developmental interactions may also influence species-specific properties. Now, researchers at the University of Helsinki’s Institute of Biotechnology show how development affects the evolution of teeth, and have devised a simple developmental model to predict aspects of teeth across many species. The results were published in Nature.

In the study in the field of evolutionary developmental biology, the researchers Kathryn Kavanagh, Jukka Jernvall and Alistair Evans in the Institute of Biotechnology of the University of Helsinki first studied cheek tooth, or molar, development in mice. Similarly to human teeth, mouse molars develop from front-to-back so that the first molar appears first and the posterior molars bud sequentially along the jaw. Normally the last molar to develop is the third, or wisdom tooth. Experiments on cultured mouse molars revealed that the size and number of posterior molars depend on previously initiated molars. The mechanism, called an ‘inhibitory cascade’, acts much like a ratchet that cumulatively increases size differences of teeth along the jaw. By quantifying their experiments, the researchers constructed a simple mathematical model which they then used to predict relative size and number of molars across many other mouse and rat species. They show that the model accurately predicts tooth proportions and numbers, one curious effect being that the second molar makes up one-third of total molar area, irrespective of species-specific molar proportions.

This new research demonstrates that with advances in the study of the molecular regulation of development, it is now possible to identify how development influences evolution. And this may help explain the troublesome wisdom teeth of modern humans - the blame may lie within a weak inhibitory cascade that allows the development of the last molar in a jaw that is too small.


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The article Predicting evolutionary patterns of mammalian teeth from development by K. Kavanagh, J. Jernvall and A. Evans will be published in Nature September 27th.
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PostPosted: Tue Nov 06, 2007 6:00 pm    Post subject: The Truth about Tooth Decay Reply with quote

The Truth about Tooth Decay
By Christopher Wanjek, LiveScience's Bad Medicine Columnist

posted: 06 November 2007 12:35 pm ET

Are you worried that your mass consumption of Halloween candy this year will rot your teeth so badly that you will have the smile of a hockey player by next year?

Well, don't take this as an invitation to eat a dozen Zagnut bars in one sitting, but there are worse foods than candy to cause tooth decay. If you're the kind who never brushes your teeth, then you'd be better off avoiding potato chips and raisins.

The reason is that sugar doesn't rot your teeth. Surprised to hear that? Tooth decay is caused by acid-producing bacteria in your mouth that feast on carbohydrates, be it sugar from candy or starch from wholesome foods such as bread.

Potato chips and raisins cling to your teeth, giving the bacteria something to savor. But a simple chocolate bar can get washed away naturally with saliva. The faster a food is removed, the less chance it will have to feed bacteria and cause decay.


For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hea.....teeth.html
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PostPosted: Mon Nov 19, 2007 2:58 pm    Post subject: Sweet magnolia: Tree bark extract fights bad breath and toot Reply with quote

Sweet magnolia: Tree bark extract fights bad breath and tooth decay
19 November 2007
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

“Sweet magnolia” does more than describe the fragrant blossoms of a popular evergreen tree. It also applies to magnolia bark’s effects on human breath. Scientists in Illinois are reporting that breath mints made with magnolia bark extract kill most oral bacteria that cause bad breath and tooth decay within 30 minutes. The extract could be a boon for oral health when added to chewing gum and mints, they report in a study scheduled for the Nov. 14 issue of the ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, a bi-weekly publication.

Consumers often turn to flavored chewing gum and mints to battle bad breath. However, those products only temporarily mask the odor of bad breath, which is caused by bacteria. Existing anti-bacterial products for bad breath are far from ideal, with some having side effects like tooth staining.

In the new study, Minmin Tian and Michael Greenberg tested the germ-killing power of magnolia bark extract using saliva samples taken from volunteers following a regular meal. Mints containing the extract killed more than 61 percent of the germs that cause bad breath within 30 minutes, compared with only a 3.6 percent germ-kill for the same flavorless mints without the extract, the researchers say.

The extract also showed strong antibacterial activity against a group of bacteria known to cause cavities. Mints and chewing gum containing the extract may also provide a “portable oral care supplement to dentifrice (toothpaste), where brushing is not possible,” the study states.

ARTICLE #2 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

“Compressed Mints and Chewing Gum Containing Magnolia Bark Extract Are Effective against Bacteria Responsible for Oral Malodor”

DOWNLOAD PDF http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....72122h.pdf
DOWNLOAD HTML http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....2122h.html
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PostPosted: Wed Jan 02, 2008 2:37 pm    Post subject: Winemaking waste proves effective against disease-causing ba Reply with quote

University of Rochester Medical Center
2 January 2008

Winemaking waste proves effective against disease-causing bacteria in early studies

Potential source of next-generation drugs against oral disease: Pinot noir

A class of chemicals in red wine grapes may significantly reduce the ability of bacteria to cause cavities, according to a study published recently in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. The findings suggest that specific polyphenols, present in large amounts in fermented seeds and skins cast away after grapes are pressed, interfere with the ability of bacteria to contribute to tooth decay. Beyond cavities, the action of the wine grape-based chemicals may also hold clues for new ways to lessen the ability of bacteria to cause life-threatening, systemic infections.

Even better, the compounds embody an emerging philosophy in design of drugs against bacteria: take away their ability to cause disease without killing them. Current antibiotics often kill a strain of bacteria responsible for disease, only to create a vacuum quickly filled by related strains. The widespread overprescribing of antibiotics and the speed of bacterial evolution have greatly increased the likelihood that the strains most able to resist antibiotics will thrive and spread. This trend is evident in recent reports that one strain of bacteria has become resistant to all 18 antibiotics approved for use in childhood ear infections, while another now causes more U.S. deaths than AIDS. New approaches seek to take away bacterial capabilities that cause disease (virulence factors) without “selecting for” resistance or killing beneficial bacteria.

“Most foods contain compounds that are both good and bad for dental health, so the message is not ‘drink more wine to fight bacteria,’” said Hyun Koo, DDS, Ph.D., assistant professor of Dentistry within the Eastman Department of Dentistry and Center for Oral Biology at the Medical Center. “We hope to isolate the key compounds within the winemaking waste that render bad bacteria harmless, perhaps in the mouth with a new kind of rinse,” said Koo, an author of the current study.

The findings are the result of collaboration between the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station at Cornell University. Both institutions, with access to Finger Lakes wineries, have been looking at how compounds found in wine grapes impact human oral health. Together, they won a U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) grant in December 2005 to study the influence of grape polyphenols on oral bacteria, and today’s publication is an early result.

Along with the potential value for medicine, the discovery that the waste products of winemaking may be useful in drug-making has economic implications. Grapes are one of the world’s largest fruit crops, with more than 80 percent of grapes used to make wine. Fermented winemaking waste, called pomace, contains at least as many polyphenols as whole fruit, eliminating the need to use up perfectly good food to make any future drugs. Accordingly, the USDA is especially interested in the idea of bioprospecting in the winery versus the rainforest.

Study Details

Koo, who conducts his research at the Eastman Dental Center, concluded early in his career as an oral biologist that there are biochemical implications of foods on oral health – other than to say “sugar is bad for teeth.” In recent years, his and other labs have examined whether chemicals from cranberries, cocoa and grapes for instance have a therapeutic effect on bacterial pathogens. All contain polyphenols and the race is on to determine which may be the most useful medically.

The goal of the current study was to examine the make-up of polyphenols in red wine grape varieties and their ability to interfere with Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the bacteria that produces the substances most responsible for tooth decay: acid and the building blocks (glucans) of a dental biofilm called plaque.

Researchers prepared polyphenolic extracts from harvest season 2005 red wine grape varieties and pomace from wineries in the Finger Lakes region of New York state. These included Pinot Noir from Hosmer Winery in Ovid, N.Y., Cabernet Franc from Cornell Orchards in Lansing, N.Y., Baco Noir from Pleasant Valley Winery in Hammondsport, N.Y. and NoiretTM from Swedish Hill Winery in Romulus, N.Y. Varieties were pre-screened for their phenolic content, and grape pomace was chosen in general for its ready supply as an inexpensive source material. Red grapes have been shown to contain 40 percent more phenols content than white.

The team was most interested in examining the impact of grape polyphenols on two capabilities of S. mutans that enable it to thrive in the human mouth. First, it secretes enzymes known as glucosyltransferases (GTFs) that produce sugary, glue-like substances (glucans) that firmly attach bacteria to tooth surfaces and form a tough barrier around bacterial colonies. Such barriers, called the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix, protect the colony against environmental assaults, and make them, in some cases, hundreds of times more resistant to antibiotics. Bacteria living in these gunky fortresses are known as biofilms, whether they occur on teeth or elsewhere in the body. Many Streptococci (strep) and Staphylococci (staph) cause resistant forms of meningitis, pneumonia, staph aureus, as well as infections on heart valves and around stents, by forming biofilms. GTFs are a main virulence factor responsible for S. mutans biofilm formation, but other pathogens use similar mechanisms to produce EPS matrix. The hope is that learning about one will suggest ways to interfere with many.

A second linked set of virulence factors for S. mutans are its abilities to secrete acid, and to survive in that acid. Having evolved to be “acid durable,” S. mutans can survive and out-compete other bacteria in the mouth. Better understanding of these mechanisms could also yield new ways to fight other biofilm related infections.

In the current study, researchers found that all polyphenol extracts inhibited two bacterial GTFs by as much as 85 percent (P<0.01)), a level of inhibition not previously observed in Koo’s lab. Cabernet Franc extracts were more effective GTF inhibitors, with Pinot noir a close second at concentrations that might be useful therapeutically. Grape polyphenols were also found to cause S. mutans to produce significantly less acid. This may be because they inhibit glycolysis, the process by which the bacteria turns sugar into energy also produces acid, researchers said. None of the extracts from any variety killed the bacteria outright. By targeting the ability of S. mutans to form EPS matrix, for example, therapeutic approaches to reducing the formation of biofilms could be precise and selective. Further chemical analysis will be needed to pinpoint which the most effective polythenol mix.

"Overall, the phenolic extracts disrupt essential virulence traits for a widespread, destructive oral pathogen, but without killing it," said Olga I. Padilla-Zakour, Ph.D., associate professor of Food Processing within the New York Agricultural Experiment Station of Cornell University. "We are excited about the potential application of active compounds from wine grape by-products in the control of biofilms as part of the precise targeting of bacterial disease."
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PostPosted: Wed Jan 09, 2008 11:52 am    Post subject: A healthy smile may promote a healthy heart Reply with quote

American Academy of Periodontology

A healthy smile may promote a healthy heart

Research continues to suggest the importance of periodontal health as related to cardiovascular health
CHICAGO (January 08, 2008) - Each year, cardiovascular disease kills more Americans than cancer. And while most people are aware that lifestyle choices such as eating right, getting enough exercise and quitting smoking can help prevent cardiovascular disease, they may not know that by just brushing and flossing their teeth each day, they might also be avoiding this potentially lethal condition.

An article published in the December issue of the Journal of Periodontology (JOP), the official publication of the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP), suggests that periodontal patients whose bodies show evidence of a reaction to the bacteria associated with periodontitis may have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

“Although there have been many studies associating gum disease with heart disease, what we have not known is exactly why this happens and under what circumstances,” said JOP editor Kenneth Kornman, DDS, PhD. “The findings of this new analysis of previously published studies suggest that the long-term effect of chronic periodontitis, such as extended bacterial exposure, may be what ultimately leads to cardiovascular disease.”

Researchers at Howard University identified 11 studies that had previously examined clinically-diagnosed periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. The team then analyzed the participants’ level of systemic bacterial exposure, specifically looking for the presence of the bacteria associated with periodontal disease, as well as measuring various biological indicators of bacterial exposure. They found that individuals with periodontal disease whose biomarkers showed increased bacterial exposure were more likely to develop coronary heart disease or atherogenesis (plaque formation in the arteries).

“While more research is needed to better understand the connection between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease, this study suggests the importance of taking of your teeth and gums and how that can help you take care of your heart,” said Susan Karabin, DDS, President of the AAP. “With the number of people with heart disease continuing to increase, it is important to understand that simple activities like brushing and flossing twice a day, and regular visits to your dental professional can help lower your risk of other health conditions.”
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PostPosted: Mon May 05, 2008 1:21 pm    Post subject: Munch-o-matic: Scientists develop the artificial mouth Reply with quote

Munch-o-matic: Scientists develop the artificial mouth
5 May 2008
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

For years scientists have tried to build an electronic tongue, a robotic tasting device that could have profound applications in improving food quality and safety. But before machines learn to taste their food, they first need to learn how to chew it. In a study scheduled for the May 14 issue of ACS’ bi-weekly Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, scientists report the design of an artificial mouth that mimics the first vital steps of human digestion — chewing, saliva release and the initial breakdown of food.

In the study, Gaëlle Arvisenet and colleagues point out that a number of factors are involved in the release of aromatic and flavor compounds in the mouth. Chewing, the release of saliva, the rate of food breakdown and the temperature all affect the flavor and smell of food before it’s swallowed. To accurately reproduce the effects of chewing, Arvisenet's team needed to build a machine that could imitate several — if not all — of these subtle processes. “Our aim was not to reproduce the human mouth conditions exactly, but to reproduce the result of mastication,” says Arvisenet.

The researchers compared apples chewed by their machine and by human mouths. The resulting apple pulp was scrutinized for texture, color and aromatic compound release. “Experimental conditions were determined that produced fruit in a state closest to that obtained after mastication in a human mouth,” reports Arvisenet. — AD

ARTICLE #4 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
"Effect of Apple Particle State on the Release of Volatile Compounds in a New Artificial Mouth Device"

DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ARTICLE
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf073145z
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